PSYC 301L Chapter 5: Chapter 5 Notes

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7 Feb 2017
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Chapter 5 Notes
2 different definitions of memory:
o 1) process of retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images,
events, ideas, and skills
o 2) active any time a past experience affects the way you think/behave and now/in
the future
Sensory memory- when something is presented briefly, your perception continues for a
fraction of a second after it’s gone
Short-term memory/working memory- information stays in your memory for 10-15
seconds
Long-term memory- lasts from minutes to a lifetime
o Episodic memory- long-term memories of past experiences
o Procedural memory- long-term memories of things that involve muscle
coordination
o Semantic memory- long term memory of facts
Modal model- influential model of memory which places sensory and short-term memory
at the beginning of the memory process
o Invented by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
o Proposes 3 types of memory:
1) sensory memory holds all incoming information for up to seconds
2) short-term memory (STM) holds 5-7 items for 15-20 seconds
3) Long-term memory (LTM) holds long-term memories for years to
decades
o Input Sensory Memory Long-term memory
Things are also exchanged from LTM to STM
There are outputs from sensory memory
Some things are cycled back through the sensory memory through
rehearsal, a control process
Structural features- types of memory in the diagram
Control processes- dynamic processes associated with structural features that can be
controlled by the person and may differ from task to task
o Rehearsal- repeating a stimulus over and over
o Strategies to make a stimulus more memorable
o Attention strategies to help you focus on important/interesting information
Encoding- the process of storing something into LTM
Retrieval- the process of remember information in LTM
Sensory memory- retention (for brief periods of time), of the effects of sensory
stimulation
o Ex) persistence of vision is when you see a trail of light from a sprinkler on the 4th
of July
Movie theater pictures
George Sperling did an experiment on how much information can be taken in from
briefly presented stimuli
o Whole report method- subjects were asked to report as many letters as possible
o Average: 4.5/12 letters
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