PSYC 301L Chapter 12: Chapter 12
Premium

2 Pages
63 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 301L
Professor
Dehghani
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 12 • Problem- obstacle between present state and a goal without an obvious solution • Gestalt psychologists focused on: o Mental representations of problems o How solving requires reorganization/restructurization of this representation • Restructuring- process of changing a problem’s representation o Insight- sudden realization of the solution • Metcalfe & Wiebe (1987) tried to distinguish between insight and non-insight problems o People solving insight problems shouldn’t know how close they are to the solution while those solving noninsight problems should have a good idea • Fixation- tendency to focus on a problem’s characteristic that is keeping them from finding the solution o Functional fixedness- focus on typical or familiar uses for an object ▪ Candle problem- mount a candle to a corkboard without dripping wax with matches, candles, and thumbtacks • Have to think of an alternate use for the matchbox (a tray) ▪ Two string problem- tie together two pieces of string hanging from the ceiling with pliers • Have to think of the pliers as a weight to make a pendulum o Mental set- preconceptions of how to solve a problem based on what has worked in the past ▪ Water jug problem- measure 100 quarts of water using 21 quart, 127 quart, and 3 quart jugs • Mental set group and no mental set group o Control group used simpler solutions • Tower of Hanoi problem- move three rings from left peg to right peg while following rules o Initial state- conditions at the beginning of the problem o Goal state- solution o Operators- actions that take you from the initial state to the goal state o Intermediate states- between initial and goal states o Problem space- all possible states that could occur when solving a problem o Means-end analysis- reduce differences between initial and goal states ▪ Subgoals- intermediate states closer to goal states • Mutilated checkerboard problem- if you can cover a checkerboard with 32 dominoes can you cover one wit
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 301L

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit