Textbook Notes (369,067)
United States (206,185)
ANT 301 (31)
Kappelman (16)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT 301
Professor
Kappelman

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1 The Development of Evolutionary Theory Natural selection- the most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first described by Charles Darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differences in reproductive success between individuals. Fixity of species- the notion that species, once created, can never change; an idea diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution. Copernicus is generally credited with removing the earth as the center of all things, and in the early 1600s, Galileo restated Copernicus’ views in print, using logic and mathematics to support his claim. The seventeenth century saw the discovery of the principles of physics (such as motion and gravity) and numerous specific instruments, including the microscope were invented. John Ray- developed the concept of species and was the first to use the labels genus and species Reproductively isolated- pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other groups. Carolus Linnaeus- developed a method of classifying plants and animals. In his famous work, Systema Naturae (Systems of Nature), he standardized Ray’s use of genus and species terminology and established the system of binomial nomenclature. He also added two more categories: class and order. Linnaeus’ four-level system became the basis for taxonomy. Binomial nomenclature- “two names” in taxonomy, the convention estab. by Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species. Taxonomy- the branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships. Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon- recognized the dynamic relationship between the external environment and living forms. In his Natural History, he recognized that different regions have unique plans and animals. He also stressed that animals had come from a “center of origin.” He recognized that alterations of the external environment, including the climate, were agents of change in species. The father of evolutionism Jean-Baptiste Lamarck- tried to explain the evolutionary process. He suggested a dynamic relationship between species and the environment such that if the external environment changed, an animal’s activity patterns would also change to accommodate 2 the new circumstances. His theory called the inheritance of acquired characteristics or the use-disuse theory stated that the parts of animals that weren’t used would disappear over time. However, the parts that continued to be used would change over time. So, physical changes would occur in response to bodily “needs.” Georges Cuvier- introduced the concept of extinc
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