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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Notes

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ANT 301

1 Chapter 11: The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans The first modern humans, who evolved by 195,000 ya are probably descendants of some of the pre-modern humans in Chapter 10; African populations of H. heidelbergensis are the most likely ancestors of the earliest modern H. sapiens. The Complete Replacement Model • Developed by Christopher Stringer and PeterAndrews • Based on the origin of modern humans inAfrica and later replacement of populations in Europe and Asia • Proposes that anatomically modern populations arose inAfrican within the last 200.000 years & then migrated fromAfrica, completely replacing populations in Europe andAsia • Doesn’t account for a transition from pre-modern forms to modern H. sapiens anywhere in the world exceptAfrica • Proposes that anatomically modern humans appeared as the result of a biological speciation event Mitochondrial inheritance follows a strictly maternal pattern (inherited through females), while the Y chromosome is transmitted only from father to son. Partial Replacement Model • Proposes that modern humans originated inAfrica, and then, when their population increased, expanded out of Africa into other areas of the Old World • Claim that some interbreeding occurred between emigratingAfricans and resident pre- modern populations elsewhere • Assumes that no speciation event occurred, and all these hominins should be considered members of H. sapiens The Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional Evolution • Associated with Milford Wolpoff • Suggests that local populations in Europe,Asia, andAfrica continued their indigenous evolutionary development from pre-modern Middle Pleistocene forms to anatomically modern humans • Denies that the earliest modern H. sapiens population originated exclusively in Africa, challenging the notion of complete replacement • Asserts that significant levels of gene flow (migration) between various geographically dispersed pre-modern populations were extremely likely throughout the Pleistocene • Through gene flow and natural selection, local populations wouldn’t have evolved totally independently from one another which would have prevented speciation between the regional lineages • States that there are no taxonomic distinctions between modern and pre-modern humans The Earliest Discoveries of Modern Humans Africa - Omo Kibish: found in southernmost Ethiopia; earliest of these specimens (195.000 ya) 2 - Klasies River Mouth: found on the south coast ofAfrica and Border Cave; 120.000- 80.000 ya - Early modern humans appeared in EastAfrica by shortly after 200.000 ya and had migrated to southern Africa by approximately 100.000 ya - Herto: key fossil discovery in Ethiopia o Dated between 160.000 and 154.000 ya o Best-dated hominin fossils from this time period from anywhere in the world o These fossils “sample a population that is on the verge of anatomical modernity but not yet fully modern” o Newly defined subspecies: Homo sapiens idaltu (idaltu = elder) o Support anAfrican origin of modern humans; evidence is compatible with an array of genetic data indicating some form of replacement model for human origins Key Early Modern Homo sapiens Discoveries fromAfrica and the Near East Dates Site Hominin Evolutionary Significance 110.000 ya Qafzeh (Israel) H. sapiens sapiens Large sample (at least 20 individuals); definitely modern, but some individuals fairly robust; early date (>100.000 ya) 115.000 ya Skhūl (Israel) H. sapiens sapiens Minimum of 10 individuals; like Qafzeh modern morphology, but slightly earlier date (and earliest modern humans known outside ofAfrica) 160.000-154.000 ya Herto (Ethiopia) H. sapiens idaltu Very well-preserved 3 cranium; dated >150.000 ya, the best preserved early modern human found anywhere 195.000 ya Omo (Ethiopia) H. sapiens The oldest modern human found anywhere; two crania found, one more modern looking than the other Asia - 7 early anatomically modern human localities in China - The fossils from these Chinese sites are all fully modern, and all are considered to be from the Late Pleistocene with dates less than 40.000 ya - Tianyuan o 40.000 ya o Remains from here suggest anAfrican origin of modern humans and evidence of some interbreeding in China with resident archaic populations o Best-dated early modern H. sapiens from China and one of the two earliest from anywhere inAsia Australia - Human occupation appears to have occurred by 50.000 ya - Kow Swamp fossils: display certain archaic traits—such as receding foreheads, heavy supraorbital tori, and thick bones (between 14.000 and 9.000) - All nativeAustralians are descendants of a single migration dating back to about 50.000 ya Central Europe - Source of the earliest anatomically modern H. sapiens in Europe - Oase Cave in Romania: cranial remains of 3 individuals were recovered, including a complete mandible and a partial skull (35.000 ya) - Mladeč in the Czech Republic: several individuals excavated here; dated to be 31.000 ya 4 Western Europe - Cro-Magnon site: a rock shelter in northern France o The remains of 8 individuals were discovered in 1868 o Associated with an Aurignacian tool assemblage (pertaining to an Upper Paleolithic stone tool industry in Europe beginning at about 40.000 ya) o Dated to be about 28.000 ya o Represent the earliest of France’s anatomically modern humans o Became the original model for what was once termed the Cro-Magnon or Upper Paleolithic “race” of Europe Key Early Modern Homo sapiens Discoveries from Europe and Asia Dates Site Hominin Evolutionary Significance 24.500 ya Abrigo de Lagar H. sapiens sapiens Child’s skeleton; Velho
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