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Chapter 7

BIO 311D Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Cleft Lip And Cleft Palate, Soft Palate, Salivary Gland

Course Code
BIO 311D
Dr.Zaiming Zhao

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Digestive system Outline
Cole Daly
Garrison Hollis
Colton Chu
Digestive System
Primary and Secondary Functions
Break down food
Absorb nutrients
Convert food into energy
Contribute to homeostasis
Separating food into chemicals
Mechanical digestion
Chewing food
Chemical digestion
Enzymes break down macromolecules
Excreta waste from body
Location in the Body
Waste and above
Mouth in the head
Tongue in the mouth
Salivary glands in the head
Pharynx in back of throat
Esophagus in the throat
Diaphragm under lungs
Stomach under liver
Liver in front of stomach under diaphragm
Pancreas behind the stomach
Gallbladder behind liver
Small intestine under large intestine
Duodenum first part of small intestine
Jejunum and ileum second part of small intestine
Small intestine longer then large intestine
Large intestine above small intestine
Critical to the body
Give us nutrients
Gives us energy
The Digestive Tract
contributes to homeostasis
separate food to chemical nutrients that cells can use, absorbing those nutrients, and
eliminating indigestible remains

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Digestion takes place in the digestive tract
begins in mouth and ends in anus
Mechanical Digestion
Begins with chewing food in the mouth
Continues with churning and mixing of food in the stomach
Chemical Digestion
Enzymes break down macromolecules to small organic molecules that can be
The Mouth
Bounded externally by
Sensory receptors (taste buds)
occur on the tongue
activated by presence of food
nerve impulses travel through cranial nerves to the brain
The tongue
composed of skeletal muscle that contracts to change the shape of the tongue
attached to floor of the mouth by a fold of mucous membrane
Roof of the mouth
separates the nasal cavity form the mouth
Contains two parts:
an anterior hard palate
contains several bones
posterior soft palate
composed of muscle / connective tissue
ends in a finger-shaped projection called the uvula
possible defects
in about 1 out of every 700 newborns, the bones of the hard palate have not fused
during fetal development
leaves a gap (cleft palate)
If not surgically repaired, it can lead to problems with:
hearing (because of ear infections
The tonsils
located in the back of the mouth / nasopharynx
contain lymphoid tissue
help protect the body against infections
if inflamed, the person has tonsillitis
if it recurs repeatedly, the tonsils may be surgically removed (tonsillectomy)
Salivary glands
produce saliva
helps keep moth moist

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contains enzyme that begins the process of digesting starch.
three pairs
one pair lies on either side of the face directly below and in front of the ears
The mumps
a disease caused by a viral infection
causes this pair of glands to swell
another pair lies beneath the floor of the mouth
another pair lies beneath the tongue
The teeth
allow chewing of food into convenient pieces for swallowing
the smaller 20 deciduous (baby) teeth appear during the first two years of life
eventually replaces by 32 adult teeth
third pair of molars (wisdom teeth) sometimes fail to erupt
if they push on other teeth and/or cause pain, they can be removed by a dentist or
oral surgeon
Each tooth has two main divisions
a crown
has an outer layer of enamel (an extremely hard covering). Made of:
calcium compounds
thick layer of bone-like material (dentin)
an inner pulp
a root
also contains dentin and pulp
Gum tissue (gingiva)
surrounds the teeth
normally forms a tight seal around the teeth
gum disease
more apt to occur at older age
gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)can spread to periodontal membrane, which
lines the tooth socket
a person then has periodontitis
loss of of bone
loss of teeth
stimulation of gums recommended by dentists can help prevent this
Bacteria (That adhere to he teeth)
metabolize sugar
give off acids
can erode the enamel which can result in dental caries (cavities) in teeth
the erosion of the enamel happens very slowly
once decaying reaches the dentin layer, damage spreads more rapidly
to prevent tooth decay, there are three measures that can help
limiting sugar intake
+ daily brushing and flossing
+ regular visits to the dentist
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