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CH 320M (28)
Chapter 1

CH 320M Chapter 1 Powerpoint Notes

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CH 320M
John A.Colapret

Chapter 1 Friday, August 30, 2013 9:24 AM C = carbon • Forms single, double, and triple bonds • Intermediate in electronegativity (2.5) • Forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and some metals Energy-level diagram - pictorial designation of where electrons are placed in an electron configuration Ground state - lowest energy form Excited state - higher energy level; when electrons are rearranged back to the ground state, energy is released Valence shell - outermost occupied electron shell of an atom Valence electrons - electrons in the valence shell of an atom Lewis dot structure - symbol of an element represents the nucleus and all inner shell electrons Atoms interact in such a way that each participating atom acquires an electron configuration that's the same as that of the noble gas nearest it in atomic number! Anion - an atom that GAINS electrons Cation - an atom that LOSES electrons Ionic solids - attraction of anions and cations (IONIC BOND) Covalent bond - chemical bond formed by sharing electrons Polar covalent bonds - bonds partially ionic or partially covalent Electronegativity - measure of an atom's attraction for the electrons it shares with another atom in a chemical bond PAULING SCALE - generally increases left to right in a row and generally increases bottom to top in a column Formation of ions: Must have electronegativity difference of 1.9< to form ions • Example: sodium (EN 0.9) and fluorine (EN 4.0) o Use single-headed (barbed) curved arrow to show the transfer of one electron from Na to F • + - o In forming Na F , the single 3s electron from Na is transferred to the partially filled valence shell of F • Covalent bonds: Simplest covalent bond is H --2-------- Shared pair functions (1) shared by the two atoms (2) fills the valence shell of each atom One shared pair = single bond Two shared pairs = double bond Three shared pairs = triple bond Polar covalent bond example: HCl Cl - H = EN 3.0 - 2.1 = 0.9 Functional group - an atom or group of atoms within a molecule that shows a characteristic set of physical and chemical properties Very important • The units by which we divide organic compounds into classes • The sites of characteristic chemical reactions • The basis for naming organic compounds ALCOHOLS: • Contain -OH (hydroxyl) group bonded to a tetrahedral C atom • Classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on the # of carbon atoms bonded to the C bearing the -OH group o • 2 alcohols with molecular formula: C H3O 8 o AMINES: • Contain an amino group • Sp -hybridized nitrogen bonded to 1< C atoms • May be o ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: • Contain a carbonyl (C=O) group • CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: • Contain a carboxyl (-COOH) group • CARBOXYLIC ESTERS: • Derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the carboxyl hydrogen is replaced by a carbon group
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