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CH 320M (28)
Chapter 2

CH 320M Chapter 2 Powerpoint Notes

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University of Texas at Austin
CH 320M
John A.Colapret

Chapter 2 Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:56 PM Hydrocarbon - a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen Saturated hydrocarbon - a hydrocarbon containing only single bonds Alkane - a saturated hydrocarbon whose carbons are arranged in an open chain Aliphatic hydrocarbon - another name for an alkane STRUCTURE: Shape ---- tetrahedral around C with bond angles of approx. 109.5°   Line-angle formulas o Constitutional isomers - compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms NOMENCLATURE IUPAC: Suffix -ane specifies an alkane! Parent name ----- the longest carbon chain Substituent ------ a group bonded to the parent chain  Alkyl group - a substituent derived by removal of a H from an alkane; given the symbol R-  THE RULES TO NAMINGGGGGGGGGGGGGG! 1. The name of a saturated hydrocarbon with an unbranched chain = prefix + suffix a. Iso- indicates the chain terminates in -CH(CH3)2 b. Neo- indicates that it terminates in -C(CH3)3 2. The parent chain is the longest chain of carbon atoms 3. Each substituent is given a name and a number a. Use a hyphen to connect the number to the name 4. If there's one substituent, number the chain from the end that gives it the lowest number 5. If there are 2 or more identical substituents, number the chain from the end that gives the lower number to the substituent encountered first a. Indicate the number of times the substituent appears by a prefix di-, tri-, etc. b. Use commas to separate position numbers 6. If there are 2 or more different substituents a. List them in alphabetical order b. Number from the end of the chain that gives the substituent encountered first the lower number c. Ex: i. 7. The prefixes di-, tri-, etc. are not included in alphabetization CLASSIFICATION OF C AND H: IUPAC - GENERAL: Prefix-infix-suffix  Prefix - tells the number of carbon atoms in the parent chain  Infix - tells the nature of the carbon-carbon bonds in the parent chain  Suffix - tells the class of the compound Example: CYCLOALKANES:  General formula - CnH2n o Five- and six-membered rings are the most common  Add the prefix cyclo- to the name of the open chain alkane containing the same number of carbons  If only one substituent, no need to give it a number  If two substituents, number from the substituent of lower alphabetical order If three or more substituents, number to give them the lowest set of numbers and then list  substituents in alphabetical order  Each line represents a C-C bond o Each vertices and line ending represents a C o Conformation - any 3D arrangement of atoms in a molecule that results from rotation about a single bond Staggered conformation - a conformation about a C-C single bond in which the atoms or groups on one C are as far apart as possible from the atoms or groups on an adjacent C Newman projection - a way to view a molecule by looking along a C-C single bond Eclipsed conformation - conformation about a C-C single bond in which the atoms or groups of atoms on one C are as close as possible to the atoms or groups of atoms on an adjacent C Torsional strain - strain that arises when nonbonded atoms separated by 3 bonds are forced from a staggered conformation to an eclipsed conformation  Also called eclipsed interaction strain  The torsional strain eclipsed and staggered ethane is appr
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