These Were The Greeks Ch. 8

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Classical civilization
C C 301
Karl Galinsky

Pg. 93-116 Imperial Athens 5th cent dominated by two wars: Persian, peloponnesian Athenian expansion - Dominance began with creating a league of Greek states to protect Ionia - Offered and took leadership over league to get revenge on Great King of Persia - League wrecked Persian garrisons, then broke the fleet at river Eurymedon - Led by Kimon, son of Miltiades, winner of Marathon - Meanwhile, Sparta struggled - Led peloponnesian league, but 2 states turned democratic - Argos led rebellion - Earthquake destroyed much of city and helots rebelled - Kimon appealed to Athens when Sparta cried for help, and they did - But it was not smart, Sparta got scared, asked them to withdraw - Kimon ostracized - Not simply because of Sparta, but mainly due to political changes in Athens that made his policies unpopular - Athens more radically democratic, Areopagos less important - archon open to any Athenian citizen - Most sognificant: pay introduced to wide range of state duties - New foreign policy: allied with Argos - Soon, Corinth, Sparta's allies, were attacked - Energetic expansive policy, sending out many troops, with great costs - Kimon died in 450 in attack on Perisn Cyprus, shortly peace made - Persians kept out of mainland and Aegean, but Ionia exposed - Athenian empire on mainland collapsed,mad to bribe Sparta out of an attack, island allies in revolt - Athens imposed agreements on subjects in league that they would not rebel - Allies had to take on Athenian coinage, weights, measures, and gave tribute - Enforced by fleet,garrison, confiscation of land - Enemies believed it was all to increase power and wealth - But allies gained relative peace, free from piracy, encouraged trade, some justice - Busybody culture led to foundation of colones for corn route (Amphipolis) and in Sicily, Italy - Thouriori, city open to all Greeks - Influence extended from Asia to Italy Pericles - Middle years of 5th cent considered high summer of Greek culture - Presiding genius of Athens, Pericles - Was general 15 yrs, elected every time - Period saw buildings like Parthenon and temple of Poseidon at cape sounion - Intellectual development: - Herodotos published his history on Athens - Sophocles wrote his tragedies - New learning and ideas spread by sophists, later blamed for athens's ills - Traveling professors - Pericles friends with Pheidias the sculptor of Parthenon and Olympia - Other guys: Protogoras, Anaxagoras and mistress Aspasia - Thucydides supported Pericles, but not a fan of democracy - Saw the good that it had done and wrote a history of the war that destroyed Athens as he knew it Athens at war - War made worse by frequent civil wars going on in Poleis. - Democrats to Athens and oligarchs to Sparta, at teach others throats - War small by modern standards, but just as cruel - Spartans capture Plataia, Athenians get Melos - Kill men, enslave everyone else - Pericles built up funds, walls to Piraeus - Seaborne attacks against the peloponnese - Pericles saw Sparta failed land attacks coming, but he did not see that plague coming that would kill 1/3 Athens - Struck twice: 430, 427 BC - Pericles died, Athens lost its skill, XP, and his successors sought to be popular and abandoned his strategy. Athens lost - However, Athens did once manage to capture 292 Spartans on Sphakteria - They promised freedom to any helot that would bring them food under siege - Strong indecision until Syracusans routed Athenians - Thus Athens failed, and overland escape failed, ppl died - Oddly enough, some Athenians w
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