C C 306M Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
Classical civilization
C C 306M
Todd Curtis

Chapter 3: Integumentary System The integumentary system consists of the following tissues:  Skin (called the integument)  Hair  Nails  Sweat glands  Sebaceous glands Functions of the integumentary system:  Protects the body from injury  Protects the body from intrusion of microorganisms  Helps to regulate body temperature  Houses receptors for the sense of touch, including pain and sensation The skin has 3 layers:  Epidermis o Consists of several layers of stratified squamous (scale-like) epithelium o Cells are produced in the innermost (basal) layer  Moving the older cells up toward the surface o Cells that are pushed up flatten, fill with keratin [hard protein substance] and die o Layers of packed dead cells accumulate in the outermost (squamous) layer  Where they’re sloughed off  Dermis o Connective tissue layer o Contains blood vessels, nerves and other structures o Collagen fibers make the skin tough and elastic  Subcutaneous layer o Blow the dermis o Composed of loose connective tissue and adipose (fatty) tissue COMBINING FORMS: Adip/o, lip/o, steat/o Fat Derm/o, dermat/o, cutane/o Skin Erythr/o Red Hidr/o Sweat Hist/o, histi/o Tissue Kerat/o Hard Leuk/o White Melan/o Black Myc/o Fungus Onych/o Nail Plas/o Formation Purpur/o Purple Scler/o Hard Seb/o Sebum (oil) Squam/o Scale Trich/o Hair Xanth/o Yellow Xer/o Dry Chapter 3: Integumentary System ANATOMIC TERMS: Epithelium – cells covering external and internal surfaces of the body Epidermis – thin outer layer of the skin Squamous cell layer – flat, scale-like epithelial cells comprising the outermost epidermis Basal layer – deepest layer of epidermis Melanocyte – cell in the basal layer that gives color to the skin Melanin – dark brown to black pigment contained in melanocytes Dermis – dense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin; corium Sebaceous glands – oil glands in the skin Sebum – oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands Sudoriferous glands – seat glands (sudor = sweat; ferre = to bear) Subcutaneous layer – connective and adipose tissue layer just under the dermis Collagen – protein substance in skin and connective tissue (koila = glue; gen = producing) Hair – outgrowth of the skin composed of keratin Nail – outgrowth of the skin, composted of keratin, at the end of each finger and toe Keratin – hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair and nails SYMPTOMATIC TERMS: Lesion – an area of pathologically altered tissue; two types – primary and secondary Primary lesions – lesions arising from previously normal skin  Flat, nonpalpable changes in skin color o Macule or macula – a flat, discolored spot on the skin up to 1 cm across (ex: freckle) o Patch – a flat, discolored area on the skin larger than 1 cm  Elevated, palpable solid masses o Papule – a solid mass on the skin up to 0.5 cm in diameter (ex: a nevus [mole]) o Plaque – a solid mass greater than 1 cm in diameter and limited to the surface of the skin o Nodule – a solid mass greater than 1 cm that extends deeper into the epidermis o Tumor – a solid mass larger than 1-2 cm o Wheal – an area of localized skin edema (swelling) (ex: a hive)  Elevations formed by fluid within a cavity o Vesicle – little bladder; an elevated, fluid-filled sac (blister) within or under the epidermis up to 0.5 cm in diameter (ex: fever blister) o Bulla – a blister larger than 0.5 cm (ex: second degree burn) (bulla = bubble) o Pustule – a pus-filled sac (ex: pimple) Secondary lesions – lesions that result in changes in primary lesions  Loss of skin surface o Erosion – gnawed away; loss of superficial epidermis, leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding (ex: area of moisture after rupture of a vesicle) o Ulcer – an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed and scar; sometimes accompanied by infection (ex: decubitus ulcer) o Excoriation – a scratch mark o Fissure – a linear crack in the skin  Material on skin surface o Scale – a thin flake of exfoliated epidermis (ex: dandruff) o Crust – a dried residue of serum (body liquid), pus, or blood on the skin (ex: impetigo) Vascular lesions – lesions of a blood vessel  Cherry angioma – a small, round, bright red blood vessel tumor on the skin, often on the trunk of the elderly  Telangiectasia – a tiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole, most commonly on the face, neck or chest (telods = end); spider angioma Purpuric lesions – purpura; lesions resulting from hemorrhages into the skin  Petechia – spot; reddish-brown, minute hemorrhage spots on the skin that indicate a bleeding tendency; a small purpura  Ecchymosis – bruise; a black and blue mark; a large purpura (chymo = juice) Cicatrix of the skin – a mark left by the healing of a sore or wound, showing the replacement of destroyed tissue by fibrous tissue (cicatrix = scar) Keloid – an abnormal overgrowth of scar tissue that is thick and irregular (kele = tumor) Chapter 3: Integumentary System Epidermal tumors – skin tumors arising from the epidermis  Nevus – a congenital malformation on the skin that can be epidermal or vascular; a mole  Dysplastic nevus – a mole with precancerous changes  Verruca – an epidermal tumor caused by a papilloma virus; a wart GENERAL SYMPTOMATIC TERMS: Alopecia – baldness; natural or unnatural deficiency of hair Comedo – a plug of sebum (oil) within the opening of a hair follicle  Closed comedo – a comedo below the skin surface, with a white center (whitehead)  Open comedo – a comedo open to the skin surface, with a black center caused by the presence of melanin exposed to air (blackhead) Eruption – appearance of a skin lesion Erythema – redness of skin Pruritus – severe itching Rash – skin eruption, most often associated with communicable disease Skin pigmentation – skin color resulting from the presence of melanin  Depigmentation – loss of melanin pigment in the skin  Hypopigmentation – areas of skin lacking color because of deficient amounts of melanin  Hyperpigmentation – darkened areas of skin caused by excessive amounts of melanin Suppuration – production of purulent matter (pus) Urticarial – hives; an eruption of wheal son the skin accompanied by itching (urtica = stinging nettle) Xeroderma – dry skin DIAGNOSTIC TERMS: Acne – inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin, evidenced by comedones (blackheads), pustules, or nodules on the skin (acne = point) Albinism – a hereditary condition characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment (particularly in the yes, skin and hair) Burn – injury to body tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation or gases  1 -degree burn – a burn involving only the epidermis; characterized by erythema (redness) and hyperesthesia (excessive sensation)  2 -degree burn – a burn involving the epidermis and the dermis; characterized by erythema, hyperesthesia and vesications (blisters) rd  3 -degree burn – a burn involving all layers of the skin; characterized by the destruction of the epidermis and dermis, with damage or destruction of subcutaneous tissue De
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