CMS 306M Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Descriptive Statistics

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10 May 2016
Chapter 9: Speaking to Inform
oInformative communication is defined as efforts to build awareness or deepen
oInformatory speaking: represents reality by increasing the audience’s awareness
of certain phenomenon, issue, or topic.
oExplanatory speaking: represents reality by expanding or deepening the
audience’s understanding of a phenomenon, issue, or topic
Choosing your topic
oNot too personal
You should consider the appropriateness of your presentation in relation
to both the audience and the speaking situation
oInteresting topic
Your presentation should contain information that is relevant to your
audience’s needs
Using evidence to support your claims
oResearching your topic involves gathering and managing outside sources, which
you will present as evidence.
Using statistics
oStatistics: are facts or occurrences that are represented numerically
oTwo types
Descriptive statistics: merely quantitative representations of
measurements or properties, such as averages, rations, percentages,
sizes, or frequency
Inferential stats: those that you use to make claims about other groups or
populations. Such as collecting a survey from one class of students and
generalizing that the conclusions you draw from their data may apply to
other classes or future actions of the sampled group
Using narrative versus objective evidence
oNarrative evidence refers to stories that people tell about their own or others’
oObjective evidence on the other hand refers to numbers, stats, and rations that
experts in the field have discovered.
Known as logos, can help paint a global picture of your topic
Expert testimony: a claim statement made by an expert in his or her field
of expertise
Reporting your evidence
oYou should present your information as a part of an argument rather than simply
adding factoids in your presentation
Engaging in Audience-Focused Delivery
oSelf-focused: energy is devoted to un-engaging aspects of your speech
Focusing on your own aspects instead of the audience
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