CMS 306M Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Narratology, Enthymeme, Syllogism

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10 May 2016
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Chapter 15: Professional Argumentation
Intro
oArgument: a particular structure of reasoning that mediates differences between
opposing forces
Defining argumentation
oArgumentation is the mechanics of influence and the structure of reason
About creating meaning
Becomes the vehicle of understanding, if only temporarily
Participants must have a high tolerance for disagreement and be risk-
takers in the process
Rationality and reason in argumentation
oReason is our best chance to avoid violence when conflict arises
Means to process differences between opposing forces
Epistemology
oHow we know what we know
oProcess of argumentation:
Functions as a dialectic, or an ever-present tension between opposing
sides of an argument
Thesis: side of an argument
Anti-thesis: other side of an argument
oFour theories of an argument:
Aristotle’s enthymeme
A partial syllogism
oSyllogism: a form of rhetorical discourse in which certain
premises have been made and a conclusionary premise
follows
Enthymeme has a missing, or implied premise
oAudience is expected to fill in
Toulmin’s components of argument
Regardless of the topic, arguers will proceed through a series of
claims, grounds, and warrants in the process of argumentation
oClaim: short summary of the argument, advocates what
the audience should believe
oWarrant: inferential leap from the claim to grounds
oGround: evidence that functions as the foundation to
support the claim
Warrant is usually the contestable part of the argument
Perelman’s technique of argument
Must begin with a premise of agreement, like a fact, belief, value
Association: makes an argument by example
Dislocation: occurs when two incompatible ideas are compared to
one another, and then separated
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