CMS 306M Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Truism, Deductive Reasoning, Begging

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10 May 2016
Chapter 14: Supporting your Claims
oEvidence: outward sign or something that furnishes proof
Types of Evidence:
oSeven Types, subtypes within
Speech is only as strong as its evidence
Explanatory evidence
oExplanation: a statement or group of statements that addresses how or why
something occurs. Clarify your subject by analyzing such things as its historical
evolution, main components, or primary cause and effect
oThree types of explanation:
Comparison: identifies the similarities and differences between two ideas
or objects
Ex: metaphors, similes, analogies
Explanation by definition made by breaking down a subject and
analyzing its various parts or types
Interpretation: moves beyond the simple assertion of facts and offers a
substantive analysis of the important issues and themes relating to a
Using definition statements
oDefinition: is a statement or group of statements that establish the meaning of a
term or phrase by clarifying the main ideas, objects, or characteristics the term
refers to
Can give its denotative meaning (standard or literal) and its connotative
meaning (suggestive or indirect)
oThree main types:
How a term’s meaning has developed through time?
oCan analyze its root
oExplore how its usage differs within various languages
oComparing parts and origins to those of other similar
How a term is either similar or different from other members of
its class or subclass
Defines a term by indicating what it is not
Using descriptive statements
oDescriptive statement or series of statements that creates a vivid picture of your
subject’s main characteristics and qualities
Can explore important facts relating to your subject
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oTwo Types:
Pictorial description: what you normally give when you want to describe
something, mental picture of subject
Objective description: offers a litany of facts relating to subject.
Offer factual evidence on size/scope
Difference is objective attempts to remain impartial
Using statistics as evidence
oAny measurement or set of measurements that explains or describes a subject or
its main properties
oThree top ways to present stats:
Showing rate of change over time
Represent the entity’s aggregate total and dividing into per-capita
Comparing stats data on two entities that are literally or figuratively alike
oDescriptive Stats
Present a picture of your subject by representing it in quantitative terms
Provide various measurements that illustrate a subject’s significant
oInferential stats
Claim that goes beyond the evidence collected
Soft inference: measurement of statistical calculation pertaining
to one population
Scientific inference: more scientific methods of analyzing data
oCorrelative: relationship between two variables
oExperimental: studies the effect of a variable on one group
in comparison to the normal reactions of a control group
in which the variable has not been introduced or has been
introduced at a different level
oUsing examples as evidence
An example must clearly relate to the point you are making and portray
the main characteristics you’re trying to illustrate
Factual example: illustrates a real person, object, or event
Hypothetical example: creates an imaginary situation that allows your
audience to visualize what might happen under similar circumstances
Case study: factual example that illustrates a subject in such a
characteristic manner that is worthy of detailed analysis
Narrative: story that illustrates a point through the depiction of the
story’s various parts
Must have structure
Must be coherent
Consistent with other stories your audience has heard, and to
their personal experiences
Three types of narratives:
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