HDF 313 Chapter 4: Chapter Four-Birth

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John W. Santrock
13th Edition
Chapter Four: Birth
The Transition from Fetus to Newborn
Being born has considerable stress for the baby.
If the delivery takes too long, the baby can develop anoxia (a condition in
which the fetus of newborn receives an insufficient supply of oxygen which
can cause brain damage)
Large amounts of adrenaline and noradrenaline protect the baby.
The baby is covered with a protective skin grease called vernix caseosa at
After birth, the umbilical cord is cut and the baby is on its own.
The first breaths may be the hardest ones an individual takes.
2. What Are Some Measures of Neonatal Health and Responsiveness?
A newborn is taken to be weighed, cleaned up, and tested for signs of
developmental problems that may require urgent attention right after birth.
Apgar Scale a widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one
and vie minutes after birth. The Apgar Scale evaluates infants’ heart rate,
respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.
A rating of 0,1, or 2 is given on each of these areas.
A score of 7 to 10 indicates that the newborn’s condition is good
A score of 5 indicated that there may be developmental issues.
A score of 3 or below signals an emergency.
Scale is good at assessing the newborn’s ability to handle the stress of
Identifies high-risk infants who need resuscitation
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) a test performed
within 24 hours to 36 hours after birth to assess newborns’ neurological
development, reflexes, and reactions to people.
Sixteen reflexes are assessed
Reactions to circumstances are tested as well
A very low NBAS score can indicate brain damage or stress to the
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