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Chapter 1

HIS 315K Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Spanish Requirement Of 1513, Atlantic Creole, Pedro Álvares Cabral


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 315K
Professor
M Seaholm
Chapter
1

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Nikki May
7/16/2018
01: Instructor-Graded Assignment
A)
The Requerimiento was a document that was read to the indigenous peoples of the lands that
the Iberians traveled to. It has a brief background of their religious history and was used as a way to
convince the indigenous people to conform to Catholicism. If they did not agree to follow the Iberian
ways, The Requerimiento was a document that the Iberians used to dominate the new land and its
inhabitants. It was written by Juan López de Palacios Rubios in 1513 and translated to English by
Arthur Helps.
When the indigenous peoples first heard the document, they would not have understood the
Iberians and would have been confused. Most likely, they would have been terrified of new people
coming into their land with a new language, clothing, and customs. Depending on the people, they
may have tried to combat the Iberians which would have been interpreted as an excuse for them to
be dominated and forced into Catholicism. If the people decided to be accepting of the Iberians -
whether out of fear or a false hope they could get along - the Iberians would have also seen this as a
chance to convert them to Catholicism and “[subdue] the barbarous nations.”
1
Because the natives most likely could not understand what the Iberians were saying, it was not
a fair way of ensuring the Spanish conquest was just. Even if they could understand Spanish, it would
still not be okay for newcomers to disregard the natives culture, language, and beliefs, simply
because the natives did not want them to make any changes. In The Requerimiento, the author says,
“we ask and require you that you consider what we have said to you… and that you acknowledge the
Church as the Ruler and Superior of the whole world.”
2
This shows that even though the Spaniards
may have thought they were asking, they were ultimately requiring, regardless of the indigenous
peoples wants/needs.
B) 1. Reconquest was the process of expanding the Medieval Christian’s territory by cleansing
the Iberian Peninsula of infidels (Muslims and Jews) through theft, murder, kidnapping, and
more. They are often referred to as Crusades.
3
The Medieval Christian’s saw this as a
necessity to spread Christianity, but more importantly, to gain more land, which they
believed their God supported, due to their continued success in battle.
4
The most emulated
crusaders were El Cid, who was cast through poems and biographies as a nobleman
capable of “slicing ‘Moors,’ or infidels, in two,”
5
and St. James whose name, “Santiago,”
1
Juan López de Palacios Rubios, The Requerimiento, (1513), 1.
2
Juan López de Palacios Rubios, The Requerimiento, (1513), 1.
3
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 23.
4
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 25.
5
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 23.

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

became the popular war cry of Portuguese-American conquistadors.
6
El Cid became the
face of expansion into Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand’s reign who would ultimately
sponsor Columbus’s journey to The Americas and continue conquering existing people and
their lands.
2. Throughout the late 1400’s and early 1500’s, both Spain (Castile) and Portugal had a
common goal of creating a Catholic state. Catholicism was ultimately made the only
allowable religion. In Spain, Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand gave Jews four months to
evacuate or to convert to Catholicism in 1492.
7
Those that converted were referred to as
conversos, or New Christians. Later, in 1502, Isabel and Ferdinand gave the same
ultimatum to the Muslims that still resided in Spain. John II, Portugal’s King, allowed the
exiled Jews into his land but that was quickly overturned when Manuel I succeeded
him.
8
Manuel I, following Isabel and Ferdinand, also ordered the exile or conversion of all
Muslims and Jews in their society. However, the conversos were not immediately accepted
within society due to the belief that they were still practicing their old religions.
9
To combat
this, Isabel established “tribunals of the Inquisition to investigate.”
10
Because the suspicions
were proven correct, it took many years and “the development of social and economic ties
for an outsider to enter the local society.”
11
3. Juan pablo Martir Rizo referred to Castile in the 1600’s as “A kingdom made of cities”
because Roman Spain was filled with hundreds of different urban areas.
12
Because cities
received benefits, such as tax breaks and power, many places turned into cities with very
small populations of only a few thousand people.
13
This dependence on urbanization led to
the Spanish conquistadors urbanizing the new lands they acquired.
14
The cities in Iberia
provided unique opportunities for tradesmen and artisans that contributed to the
Renaissance Movement and ultimately grew and were successful because of slaves;
African, Muslim, and Jew. This, of course, influenced the conquistadors into thinking that
they had to bring slaves over to The Americas in order to colonize them.
15
4. While the Spanish tended to increase their territory by overtaking regions near them, the
Portuguese expanded and conquered by sea. While searching for a route to India, they
6
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 25.
7
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 29.
8
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 29.
9
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 30.
10
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 30.
11
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 31.
12
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 27-
28.
13
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 28.
14
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 28-
29.
15
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 30.
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