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Chapter 10

HIS 315K Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Quispicanchi Province, Cupul, Oxford University Press


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 315K
Professor
M Seaholm
Chapter
10

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A. Reflection (20 points)
I consider myself someone who condemns violence unless it is necessary and
only used as a last resort. This topic of rebellions throughout the colonies interested
me because I am very liberal when it comes to human rights. It seemed like
rebellions were the only option for some of the communities because talking wasn’t
working and the people were experiencing hardships beyond reasonability. The most
interesting revolt was Tupac Amaru II’s. His reasoning that he was doing the King’s
will and still served him but was only fighting his oppressors in his community was
intriguing.
1
The Spanish King was using the colonies as a way to make his empire
greater and wealthier at the expense of his people, and yet Tupac Amaru was not
fighting him, just local Peninsulares who he saw were defying the King’s orders in
favor of their own. His written plea to end the mita system was a great example of
someone who has tried to communicate but has repeatedly been shut down. He
even gave exact locations of Spanish law that prohibited the abuse of Indians and/or
gave them compensation and relief from the hardships they had to endure for the
good of the Crown. He mentioned a case in which the King again required miners to
pay for the Indians’ journeys to work in far away mitas but explains that it was still
not followed because it was so difficult to enforce.
2
B. Identification (40 points)
1. The Caracas Company monopoly was a Spanish trade company that held a
monopoly on all trade going in or out of Venezuela. The monopoly allowed
the Spanish to push up prices and also encouraged contraband trading among
the people in the region as a way to make a living, even if it was punishable.
In 1749, led by Juan Franisco de Leon, cacao producers rebelled against the
Caracas Company. Originally, the rebels were victorious, but just like all the
other rebellions, it was defeated by the Spanish troops that were sent to
specifically destroy it after two years.
3
2. The Comunero Revolt (1780-1781) occurred because of increased taxes,
prices, and bad harvests of tobacco. With the Spanish Crown providing an
increased defense system for New Granada, they tried to make the colonies
pay for it. However, when they proved unable to do so, they compiled a list of
35 grievances and thousands of middle and lower class peoples marched on
the defenseless capital of Bogota. They expressed the injustices of treatment
1
Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America, 9th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2015), 333-334.
2
Ward Stavig and Ella Schmidt, Tupac Amaru and Catarista Rebellions: An Anthology of Sources, (Hackett
Publishing Company Inc), 20-24.
3
Burkholder and Johnson), 332.

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and demanded more say in their own governance
4
. Originally, the elites
surrendered to the Comuneros demands. However, once word got to Spain
and backup troops arrived in the colonies, the Spanish elite regained control
and crushed all of the rebel forces.
5
3. The Great Andean Rebellion was a series of rebellions that occurred
throughout the mid to late eighteenth century throughout Latin America. It
began with Thomas Katari’s protests against injustices and his murder. His
murder spurred the rest of the region to join in the cause and form their own
revolts and rebellions. The second mass uprising was under the leadership of
Tupac Amaru II who gathered thousands of followers and represented the
greatest threat. He was also killed, along with some of his family by Spanish
forces. The third biggest rebellion was led by Tupac Katari, who combined the
names of both of the leaders above in solidarity. All of these rebellions lost
100,000 lives and spread massive destruction. However, it did end the
repartimiento system and established the audiencias of Cuzco.
6
4. The Mixton War occurred from 1540 to 1542 and occurred during the very
beginning of colonialism when Native Americans fought against the
newcomers that were trying to force them into their new way of life. It
happened in New Galicia, about nine years after the Spanish conquered the
area. After years of atrocities by Nuno de Guzman and the visit of
unconquered Indians from the North who promised the people they would
be rewarded with labor-free food, other objects, and promises of youth if
they abandoned Catholicism. The Natives, comprised of many groups that
Shamans had persuaded to join their side, began fighting on Christmas Day to
catch the Spanish off guard. After each victory more and more Indians joined
in the rebellion and it grew so large that it proved a very credible threat to
Spanish rule in the colonies. However, they were eventually defeated and
word was then spread to the other Natives of “Spanish Invincibility.”
7
5. The General Indian Court was established by the Spanish Crown in the late
1700’s to prevent the abuse of the Native Americans. It was funded by tax
revenues and would offer Native Americans free legal aid and gave them right
to be heard in courts or by Viceregals. Although it helped reduce some
abuses, it could not prevent them all. However, because of the General Indian
4
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011),
271.
5
Burkholder and Johnson), 333.
6
Burkholder and Johnson), 332-335.
7
Robert W. Patch, Indian Resistance To Colonialism (Oxford University Press US), 180-182.
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