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Chapter 9

HIS 315K Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Peninsulars, Age Of Enlightenment, Bourbon Reforms


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 315K
Professor
M Seaholm
Chapter
9

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A. Reflection (20 points)
One essay topic could have been to explain and analyze the “age of
Atlantic revolutions along with their effects in both the Old and New World.
Latin America in Colonial Times would have been the best book, but not the
only one to use. It covers the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Jenkins’
Ear, and the Seven Years War and explains why each occurred and how they
ended. All the wars expanded each country’s global influence, whether they
won or lost, even if the costs were tremendous.
1
The book also mentions the
many revolts and rebellions that occurred in part due to the Enlightenment
and to the century/centuries of abuse.
2
A second topic could have been to compare and contrast how Spanish
America and Portugal America (or Brazil) both expanded throughout the
1700’s and 1800’s. Again, Colonial Latin America would have been very
helpful as it identifies administrative, demographic and economic expansion
in both areas.
3
Specifically, for Spain, it briefly covers the War of Succession
and how Philip V came to power and his influence with the Bourbon Reforms
which led to economic growth for the Crown. And for Portugal it goes into
depth about Brazilian society; how it is organized and how the explosive gold
mines changed and reformed it.
4
B. Identification (40 points)
1. The War of the Spanish Succession occurred after the death of Charles II who
did not have a child that would inherit his seat. Instead, the designated heir
was Philip V who was the grandson of a French monarch. England, the
Netherlands, Portugal, and the Holy Roman Empire allied against this
succession because of their fear of a union between France and Spain. The
war was from 1702-1713 and ended with the Treaty of Utrecht that
confirmed Philip as the King and gave other countries to right to enter into
Colonial markets. It also gave England the right to enter into a slave trade
with Latin America which greatly increased their position in a growing global
trade environment. With Philip being Spain’s new King, the Bourbon Reforms
gained power.
5
1
Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, Latin America in Colonial Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011),
237-241.
2
Restall and Lane, 242.
3
Burkholder and Johnson, 291-297.
4
Burkholder and Johnson, 291-213 and 295-297.
5
Burkholder and Johnson, 282-283; Restall and Lane, 236-237.

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2. The Intendancy System was put in place by during the Caroline Reforms and
attempted to give more power back to the Crown by giving intendants the
highest positions of authority in the colonies. Intendants were placed in office
based on their merit and were chosen due to their loyalty to the crown.
Iberian Kings hoped that this new system would reduce the abuse of power
that was occurring from those who had bought their positions previously.
Jose de Galvez was a huge advocate for Intendancy Systems and hoped they
would reorganize administrative systems in both Spain and America.
However, the system was not as effective as it was supposed to be. Those in
the new position were not able to pay their subdelegates enough to keep
them from returning to old ways and it was difficult to enforce the laws
outside of the major cities.
6
3. Creoles are those born in the Americas that descended from Spaniards.
Peninsulares, on the other hand, were those who came to Latin America from
somewhere in the Iberian Peninsula.
7
Typically, Peninsulares were regarded
as higher in society than Creoles and in some cases, daughters were given
dowrys in the hopes that it would be enough for them to marry a peninsulare
and gain more respect for the family.
8
Without explicitly stating it, the Iberian
Crowns favored Peninsulares and encouraged them to hold
office/administrative positions both in government and churches while
overseas to give the Crown more control.
9
4. Enlightenment was a movement that began in Iberia and traveled to the
colonies. It emphasized the importance of experimentation, observation,
freedom, liberty, and a few other things all centered at growth through
learning. These ideas manifested in the American and French Revolutions
that were used to bring about their own liberty from unfair and abusive
policies those in power enforced. Enlightenment ideas were rarely read,
rather, they were spread through informal sermons and discussions in the
Americas.
10
6
Burkholder and Johnson, 310-312.
7
Restall and Lane, 245.
8
Kenneth Mills and William B. Taylor, Colonial Spanish America: a document history (Scholarly Resources Inc.,
1998), 272.
9
Burkholder and Johnson, 316.
10
Burkholder and Johnson, 302-303.
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5. In the 1700’s the Iberian Kings adopted the idea of regalism which was
increasing their own authority at the expense of other powerful institutions,
mainly the Catholic Church. The most notable event that occurred due to
regalism was the expulsion of the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits around 1766.
This act stunned many colonists but was very effective at ceding authority to
the Crown. It also increased revenue because King Charles III seized their
property and sold it to others. Focused on creating more revenue streams,
the Crown also focused on cutting costs in religious areas, such as nunneries.
This received more pushback then expelling the Jesuits and Charles ultimately
gave the black veil nuns the option to accept or decline communal life
because they had paid more to enter convents that were more comfortable.
11
6. The Marques de Pombal created the Junta do Comercio and the Junta da
Fazenda. The Junta do Comercio was the Board of Trade and it oversaw the
colonial economy. The Junta da Fazenda was the Board of Treasury which
kept track of colonial revenues at every level. Both were created in
Portuguese America as Pombal sought to reorganize the colonies and create
more structure. The heads of both juntas were required to give an
assessment of potential revenues to send to the Crown and reported to the
central Board of Trade.
12
7. While most authority figures made decision for their own good, The Bourbon
State claimed that it’s actions were in the best interest of the public. They
preached the “the public” was something to be respected and that it was a
way to unify different classes. This belief tended to undermine the higher
classes because they saw themselves as superior to the rest of the population
which was counter to The Bourbon States ideas since they were trying to
reduce the love of sinful acts like gambling.
13
Along with the new idea of “the
public,” came the model citizen, or “public man.” This citizen recognized the
importance of conforming to the new societal order and behaving
appropriately in public.
14
8. Jose de Galvez was an important figure in the Bourbon reforms in Latin
America, and particularly in New Spain. He was a member of the Supreme
Council and the Council of the Indies and sought to instill a respect for
working and organization throughout the New World. Galvez was
11
Burkholder and Johnson, 316-317.
12
Restall and Lane, 247-248.
13
Pamela Voekel, “Peeing on the Palace: Bodily Resistance to Bourbon Reforms in Mexico City,” (Journal of
Historical Sociology Vol. 5 No. 2, 1992), 182-184.
14
Voekel, 185.
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