Chapter 4 Notes.odt

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History
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HIS 315K
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Patricia Castro Chapter 4: Growth and Crisis in Colonial Society (1720 – 1765) I. New England’s Freehold Society • 1630's Puritans fled England → small elites of nobles owned 75% land (leaseholding) • Contrary, New England → Puritans had society of equal landowning farm societies but by the 1750's the migrant's descendants had the best farmland A. Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy • Puritan's vision of social equality didn't extend to women • Being richer, smarter, higher social status mattered little 1. Husband the Head of the Household • Wife's duty to love and reverence husband • Women learned subordinate role throughout lives ◦ were told to be silent ◦ were prosecuted way more for having affairs ◦ marriage portions were inferior to brothers 2. Wife as the “Helpmate” • Farm wives tended garden, wove clothes, preserved meat, fermented malt, etc. • Notable women were those who excelled at domestic arts. 3. Motherhood • Bearing/rearing children quite important • Married early 20's • By early 40's had 6 children • Although taking care of their children took physical/emotional strength → most Puritan congregations were filled with women • As farms shrank, mothers now had less children (1750's - 4 children) • Now women had time for other activities = raising living standards 4. Restrictions • Ministers praised women for piety but didn't have equal role in church • Women sought other churches were treated equally (Quakers) • 1760's evangelical congregations had lost religious zeal = men's dominance B. Farm Property: Inheritance • Owning property gave formerly dependent peasants a new identity. • Property Ownership and family authority were closely related. 1. Family Authority • Migrating Europeans wanted farms could provide: ◦ living for themselves ◦ land for children • Those who didn't give land to children ◦ Placed children as indentured servants in more prosperous households ◦ When child was 18-21 indenture ended ▪ Had to climb ladder from laborer-tenant-freeholder 2. Children of Wealthy Parents • Received marriage portion (land, livestock, farm equipment) ◦ Repaid children for past labor and allowed parents to choose partners • Son/Daughter's in law were important → parent's security during old age • Although children could refuse match → didn't have luxury of falling in love 3. Marriage • Bride relinquished all property to husband Patricia Castro • If widowed → dower right (1/3 family property) • Widow died → divided among children 4. Father’s Duty • Provide inheritance ◦ Failed to do so → lost status • Gave older child family farm • Other children given: ◦ money, apprenticeships, or uncleared land ◦ or required inheriting son to do so • Other yeomen families moved to frontier were land was cheap but life hard • Men and women were no longer insignificant subjects of society marked by poverty C. Freehold Society in Crisis 1. Population Increase • Pop doubled every 25 years (starting with 100,000 in 1700) • Farms were divided and then subdivided: ◦ Now parents only provide adequate inheritance for one child ◦ Next generation owed 60% less than parents ◦ Overfishing → depleted rivers 2. Changes in Family Life • Since parents had less to give to their sons/daughters: ◦ less control over children lives → arranged marriages broke down ◦ premarital conceptions rose dramatically → urgency of pregnancy to win permission to marry • Maintained freeholder ideal • Parents chose to have smaller families → birth control • Others provisioned the prov. Gov. for frontier land grants • Other's increased farms' productivity by: ◦ changing English crops (barley/ wheat) with potato and maize • New England changed from a grain to a livestock economy (major exported salted meat) 3. “Household Mode of Production” • System of community exchange • Women/children/men/farmers/artisans had respective jobs • Either repaid them with ◦ own products ◦ recorded debits and credits and balanced books every few years • System allowed to maximize agricultural output and maintain freeholder ideal II. Toward a New Society: The Middle Colonies, 1720–1765 • New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania • Ethnic and religious communities coexisted uneasily A. Economic Growth and Social Inequality • Ample fertile land → attracted immigrants, grain exports to Europe • Demand for wheat doubled prices (1720-1770) → brought prosperity • Pop increased from 120,000 to 450,000 1. Tenancy in New York • Many migrants refused to live in Hudson River Valley → land of wealthy Dutch and English ◦ Created by Dutch West India Co. • New York landlords desired to live as European gentry ◦ Few migrants wanted to work as peasants Patricia Castro • To attract tenants: ◦ granted long leases with right to sell improvements to next tenant ◦ still numbers rose slowly • Most tenant families hoped with hard work and ample sale they could buy own farmsteads ◦ Due to preindustrial tech during harvest it was impossible (less output) • 1750s cradle scythe tripled amount grain per worker ◦ Yet, after saving enough grain for food and seed, surplus was 15 euros → ▪ just enough money to buy salt, sugar, and clothe 2. Conflict in Quaker Pennsylvania • Wealth initially divided more evenly than New York • First immigrants lived simply → only few wealthy ate from England imported ceramic plates • Division in society caused by: ◦ expanding wheat trade ◦ influx of poor settlers • By 1760's: ◦ Landowners were using slaves and poor Scot-Irish to grow wheat ◦ Others buying land and dividing into small tenancies ◦ Others accumulated wealth by providing new settlers with: ▪ farming equipment, financial services ▪ sugar, rum • A distinct class of agricultural capitalist was formed by ◦ large-scale farmers ◦ storekeepers ◦ rural landlords ◦ gristmill operators ◦ speculators • ½ middle colonies white men owned no land and little personal property ◦ Most were inmate Scot-Irish or Germans ◦ many hoped hard work would get them land → steep rise is land prices = impossible 3. Landlessness and Crime • Crime rose sharply after 1720 • Religious people broke few lawa • Those who commited crimes were: ◦ propertyless ◦ Scot-Irish ◦ indentured servants ◦ all three • Merchants and artisans took advantage of labor supply ◦ paid poor families/propertyless to make clothes • By 1760s many communities were as crowded and social divides as rural England B. Cultural Diversity 1. Middle Colonies Not a “Melting Pot” • Migrants preserved their cultural identity by: ◦ marrying within ethnic groups ◦ maintaining Old World Customs • Major exception: Huguenots → Calvinists expelled from France who soon lost French identity • Typical: Welsh Quakers ◦ 70% Welsh migrants married Quakers • In Penn and W NJ, Quakers shaped culture because of ◦ number ◦ social cohesion ◦ wealth ◦ Brought with them local village gov, popular part in politics, and social equity • They were also pacifists → bought land from NA instead of seizing it • Extended belief of equality to African Americans → condemned, expelled Patricia Castro ◦ Yet 1737 Gov Thomas Penn used sharp tactics → displace Delaware Indians → war 2. The German Influx • Quaker version of “peaceable kingdom” attracted 100, 000 Germans migrants ◦ fled homeland because ▪ military conscription ▪ high taxes ▪ religious persecution • First Germans to arrive where Mennonites → freedom of worship • Second wave → redemptioners & propertied farmers/artisans looking better opps • Many migrants preserved their cultural identity ◦ not marrying with English/British aka preserve German blood/language • Willing colonial subjects of Britain's German born and German speaking Protestant monarchs • Generally avoider politics except to protect cultural practices 3. Scots-Irish Settlers • Most numerous of incoming Europeans • Irish & Catholic/ Scots and Presbyterian (descendants of Calvinists Protestants) ◦ Scots faced hostility from Irish Catholics and English ◦ Irish Test Act of 1704 (fucked the Scots) • Religious tolerance → Philadelphia • Cheap land → Pennsylvania • Like Germans, Scot-Irish retained culture C. Religious Identity and Political Conflict • In W Europe, leaders of church and state condemned religious diversity. 1. Religious Diversity • Although minister in Penn couldn't involve gov authority to uphold religious values, the result was not social anarchy. • Instead religious sects enforced moral behavior through communal self-discipline. ◦ Quaker meeting allowed coupled to marry only if enough $ support family → ▪ Well of Quakers married and poor remained unmarried • 1740's Quaker dominance threatened by flood on new migrants (30%) • Scot-Irish demanding aggressive Indian policy → challenging pacifism • To retain power Quakers allied with religious German who embraced voluntary military service ◦ in return, Germans demanded more seats in assembly • Other Germans tried to seize control assembly → general confederacy • The Middle Atlantic's experiment in social diversity prefigured the bitter ethnic and religious tensions that would pervade American society in centuries to come. III. The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening, 1720–1765 • Enlightenment: emphasized power human reason understand world ◦ Appealed to urban artisans, well-educated, merchant/planter fams • Pietism: Christian movement emphasized relationship w/God ◦ Appealed to farmers, urban laborers A. The Enlightenment in America • Some settlers relied on: ◦ folk wisdom (magic flowers) ◦ religion (signs of God/Satan intervention) 1. The European Enlightenment th th • 16 /17 Sci Revolution challenged folk and Christian worldviews ◦ Copernicus Patricia Castro ▪ Humans occupied more modest place in universe ◦ Isaac Newton ▪ movement of planets w/o supernatural being • Philosophers used sci reasoning/empirical research ◦ Came to 4 fundamental principles: ▪ law like order ▪ natural rights (life, liberty, property) ▪ power human reasons ▪ progressive improvements of society 2. John Locke • Argued that: ◦ character of societies could be changed through ▪ education ▪ purposeful action ▪ rational thought ◦ Authority was not given by God but derived from social compacts to preserve natural rights ◦ People should have power change/form of gov • Locke's ideas caused clergymen to respond by devising rational form of Christianity 3. Franklin’s Contributions • Exemplar of American Enlightenment ◦ Apprenticed as a youth to a printer ▪ Self-educated • Deist → Supreme Being created world, allowed to operate by natural laws, and didn't intervene ◦ not a religion but way of thinking ◦ rejecting Christ's divinity and Bible → relied on natural reason • Poor Richard's Almanack ( see notes) • Founded American Philosophical Society ◦ first significant nonreligious periodicals to appear in colonies Franklin inspired B. American Pietism and the Great Awakening 1. Pietism (emphasized pious behavior) • Christian movement originated Germany • appealed to believers' hearts rather than minds • Sparked religious revival in Pennsylvania and NJ (1720s) 2. Jonathan Edwards’s Calvinism • Original Puritans were intensely pious but faded over decades • Edward's restored that zeal in Connecticut R. Valley • Father → poorly paid minister • Mother → daughter of Solomon Stoddard (famous preacher) ◦ taught compassionate God would give sainthood ◦ Edward's rejected Solomon's thinking • He said men/women were completely helpless dependent of God's mercy • Accepted Locke's argument that ideas are the product of experience conveyed by senses ◦ and also argued people's beliefs depended on passions 3. Whitefield’s Great Awakening (English) • Transformed local revivals of Edwards into Great Awakening • Perso
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