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Chapter 4

KIN 324K Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Pineal Gland, Lateralization Of Brain Function, Auditory Cortex

Course Code
KIN 324K
Farrar Roger

of 8
Anatomy Unit 4
pia mater - -innermost layer
-tightly adheres to every area of the brain
arachnoid mater - -arachnoid trabeculae
-subarachnoid space
-arachnoid granulation
dura mater - -periosteal layer
-meningeal layer
-subdural space
-dural sinus
-dural septa
cns - brain
spinal cord
pns - somatic
afferent pathway - pns to cns
efferent pathway - cns to pns
somatic - voluntary control
skeletal muscles
autonomic - automatic
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle-digestive tract
autonomic. - sympathetic
sympathetic - fight or flight
parasympathetic - resting and digesting
cns. - meninges and connective tissue layers cover this area
csf - cycles through meninges
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produced in brain ventricles constantly
arachnoid trabeculae - attaches to pia mater
offers stability
leaves open spaces
subarachnoid space - csf fills this area
arachnoid granulation - allow csf to exit subarachnoid layer and enter the
bloodstream through the dural sinus
dura mater. - tough
consisted of 2 layers fused together
dural septa - -meningeal layer dips down
-separates specific parts of the brain and provides additional stability
subdural space - -allows dura and arachnoid layers to slide past each other
periosteal layer - -layer closest to skull
-dura mater
meningeal layer - -layer closest to brain
-dura mater
dural sinus - -space between arachnoid and dura mater
-filled with blood
-drain blood from the brain
choroid plexus - where csf is produced
csf exit - lateral and medial apertures
csf transport process - -exits choroid plexus to lateral ventricles
-lateral ventricles connected through inter ventricular foramen
-goes to 3rd ventricle
-goes through cerebral aqueduct
-goes to 4th ventricle
-exits through medial and lateral apertures
very selective - csf production is _ _
ependymal cells - selects what goes in and out of the choroid plexus
blood brain barrier - -prevents certain materials from moving in and out of brain
-glucose, co2, o2, and lipid soluble substances can go in and out
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-drugs and alcohol can enter
blood brain barrier structure - -lots of tight junctions present to prevent substance
-Continuous basement membrane of endothelial cells and tight junctions between
adjacent endothelial cells reduces capillary permeability
Astrocyte perivascular feet act as "gatekeepers" controlling materials that are able
to cross into or out of the blood
perivascular feet - gatekeepers- control materials that cross in or out of the blood
-covers capillary
choroid plexus, hypothalamus, pineal gland - blood brain barrier is reduced or
missing in these 3 locations
insula - -interpretation of taste
-gustatory cortex
temporal lobe - -interpretation and storage of auditory and olfactory
sensations/understanding speech
-auditory cortex
-auditory association area(gives meaning to sounds)
-olfactory cortex->smell
parietal lobe - -sensory interpretation of textures and shapes/understanding speech
and formulating words to express thought and emotions
-body feelings
-primary somatosensory cortex
-somatosensory association area
occipital lobe - -conscious perception of visual stimuli
-visual cortex
-visual association area
frontal lobe - -higher intellectual functions/personality/voluntary motor control of
skeletal muscles
-primary motor cortex
-premotor cortex
-broca area/motor speech area->tongue/speech
-frontal eye field
right frontal petalia - right handed people
left occipital petalia - left handed people
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