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Chapter 2

KIN 324K Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Reticular Connective Tissue, Diaphysis, Intramembranous Ossification

Course Code
KIN 324K
Farrar Roger

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Anatomy Unit 2
organic bone matrix - -gives bone strength by resisting stretching, contribute to
-osteoid produced by osteoblasts
inorganic bone matrix - -hardened matrix accounts for relative rigidity of bones
-crystals (calcium phosphate) deposited around collagen fibers
osteoprogenitor cells - -stem cells derived from mesenchyme
-divide through mitosis, another stem cell is produced along with a "committed cell"
which matures into an osteoblast
-location: periosteum and endosteum
osteoblasts - -positioned side by side on bone surfaces
-synthesize and secrete osteons
osteocytes - -mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts that have lost their bone-
forming ability when enveloped by calcified osteoid
-maintain bone matrix and detect stress
osteoclasts - -derived from fused bone marrow
-break down break through resorption
bone formation - -osteoblasts secrete initial osteoid semisolid
-calcification (mineralization) crystals deposit in bone matrix
-concentration of Ca and P ions reach critical levels and precipitate out
-osteoprogenitor, osteoblast, and osteocyte processes
bone resorption - -osteoclast
-proteolytic enzymes from lysosomes chemically digest organic matrix components
-calcium and phosphate dissolved by HCl
-bone ages and becomes more brittle-like remodeling a home
osteoclast - large, multinuclear phagocytic cell derived from fused bone marrow
-breaks down bone
compact bone - -looks solid
-composed of osteons
osteon - basic functional and structural unit of mature compact bone
central canal - lies in the center of osteon
has blood vessels and nerves inside
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concentric lamellae - rings of bone connective tissue that surround central canal
collagen fibers - arranged in different directions for each layer to maximize strength
and resilience
lacunae - house an osteocyte
canaliculi - tiny, interconnecting channels that extend from lacuna to lamellae
-contact and communication
perforating canal - similar to central canals, but they run perpendicular to connect
osteons together
circumferential lamellae - rings of bone immediately internal to periosteum
interstitial lamellae - remnants of old osteons that fill space between new osteons
periosteum - fibrous and cellular layer
endosteum - periosteum without fibrous layer
-present in all openings
spongy bone - no osteons or central canals
open lattice of trabecular
bone marrow fills btwn trabecular
parallel lamellae
receive nutrients from canaliculi
-when blood comes in
endosteum on outisde
-in order to get blood and nutrients
long bones - -greater in length than width
-upper and lower limbs
-diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis
-medullary cavity
-articular cartilage
diaphysis - elongated, cylindrical shaft of bone
-provides for leverage and major weight support
medullary cavity - cylindrical space within the diaphysis
-contains red bone marrow in children
epiphysis - expanded knobby region - on each end of bone
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