MAN 337 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Free Rider Problem, Social Loafing, Hawthorne Effect

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4 Jan 2017
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1. Chapter 8: Foundations of Group Behavior
a. Group: 2+ individuals, interact and interdependent, who come together to achieve an objective
i. Foral: groups defied y the orgaizatio’s struture ad hae desigated ork
assignments
ii. Informal: alliances that are not formal; social contact
iii. Command: determined by organization chart (individuals + manager they report to)
iv. Task: people who work together to complete a task
v. Interest: affiliate to attain a specific objective
vi. Friendship: social alliances; have one or more common characteristic
b. Five-stage model of group development
i. Forming: testig the ater; uertaity
ii. Storming: intragroup conflict about constraints and control
iii. Norming: solidification and common goals/expectations
iv. Performing: fully functional and accepted
v. Adjourning: preparation for disbandment
c. Group properties:
i. Roles: a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given
position; we all play diverse/multiple roles
1. Role identity: when attitudes and behaviors are consistent with the role
2. Role perception: based on an interpretation of how we believe we are
supposed to behave, we engage in certain types of behavior
3. Role expectations: the way others believe you should act in a given situation
4. Role conflict: when complying with one role makes it difficult to comply with
another
ii. Norms: aeptale stadards of ehaior that are shared y the group’s eers
1. Hawthorne studies: workers worked harder and performed better when
observed in the study
a. Second study: economic incentive for being more productive
i. Output otrolled y group or that defied a proper day’s
ork; did’t at to produe ore eause the or ould
shift and knock out slower workers
ii. Kept others within the norm by using negative feedback
2. Conformity: conforming to earn acceptance
a. Reference groups: important groups in which an individual belongs
and will conform to
b. Asch study: cards of varying length and to say which one matched
another card; in some trials a USS (unsuspecting subject) was forced to
conform when others in the group same that a card matched another
he it really did’t
c. 75% of participants conformed at least once
3. Deviant workplace behavior: voluntary behavior that violates significant
organizational norms and threatens the well-being of the organization or its
members
a. Can lead to reduced productivity and satisfaction
iii. Status: socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members; important
otiator he there is a disparity etee their status ad others’ status
1. Status characteristics theory (what determines status?):
a. The power a person wields over others
b. A perso’s aility to otriute to a group’s goals
c. A idiidual’s persoal harateristis alued y the group
2. High status people can deviate more from the norm
3. Also better at resisting conformity pressures
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