MAN 337 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Job Satisfaction, Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness

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4 Jan 2017
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Chapter 11: Leadership
Traditional theories
o Trait theories: differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities
and characteristics
Most of the leadership traits could be subsumed under one of the Big Five traits
resulted in strong support of Big Five traits being predictors of
leadership
Extraversion is the most important; but results show that extraversion is
related to leadership emergence, not effectiveness
Conscientiousness and openness to experience also related to
leadership
Recent studies suggest that emotional intelligence is important to effective
leadership
o Behavioral theories: focused on observable behaviors exhibited by specific leaders
(leaders can be trained!)
Ohio state studies:
Two dimensions of leadership:
o Initiating structure: the extent to which a leader is likely to
define and structure his or her role and those of employees in
search for goal attainment
assigs group eers to partiular tasks
o Consideration: the extent to which a person is likely to have job
relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for
eployees’ ideas, ad regard for their feeligs
friedly, approahale ad illig to help
University of Michigan studies:
Two dimensions of leadership:
o Employee oriented: emphasizing interpersonal relations; they
took an interest in the needs of their employees and accepted
individual differences among members
Associated with higher productivity and job satisfaction
o Production oriented: emphasizing the technical or task aspects
of their jobs; their main concern was in accomplishing each
group’s tasks—members are a means to an end
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o Contingency theories: focus on situational influences on leadership effectiveness
Fiedler model: proposes that effective group performance depends on the
proper ath etee the leader’s style ad the degree to hih the situatio
gives control to the leader
Least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire:
o Measures whether a person is task or relationship oriented
o Asks workers to describe the person they enjoyed working with
the LEAST according to 16 adjectives (i.e. ineffective-effective)
o Based on the results he can tell if the person is focused more on
relationships (more favorable responses) or tasks (unfavorable
responses)
Three contingency dimensions that define key situational factors that
determine leadership effectiveness:
o Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust
members have in the leader
o Task structure: degree to which jobs are structured
o Position power: degree of influence a leader has over power
variables (i.e. hiring, firing, discipline, salary)
Based on how much control a leader has over the 3 dimensions he/she
will thrive better under certain situations as task oriented or
relationship oriented
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