MAN 337 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Cognitive Dissonance, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment

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4 Jan 2017
1. Chapter 4: Job Attitudes
a. Attitudes: evaluative statements about objects, people or events
i. Components of attitude:
1. Cognitive: the aspect of an attitude that is a description of or belief in the way
things are
a. My pay is lo
2. Affective: the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
a. I’ agry at ho little I get paid
3. Behavioral: an intention or behave in a certain way toward someone or
a. I’ goig to look for aother jo that pays etter
ii. Cognitive dissonance:
1. Research and logic shows that behavior follows attitude, but recent researchers
argue that attitude follows behavior because people change their attitudes to
justify their actions
2. Cognitive dissonance: refer to any incompatibility an individual might perceive
between two or more attitudes or behaviors
a. When any inconsistency is uncomfortable, an individual will attempt
to reduce the dissonance; they seek a stable state
b. People either alter the attitude or the behavior
c. The desire to reduce dissonance depends on the importance of the
elements creating it and the degree of influence the individual
believes he has over the elements
iii. Job attitudes:
1. Job satisfaction: a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of
its characteristics
2. Job involvement: measures the degree to which people identify psychologically
with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-
a. Psychological empowerment: eployee’s eliefs i the degree to
which they influence their work environment, their competence, the
meaningfulness of their job and the perceived autonomy in their work
3. Organizational commitment: a state in which an employee indentifies with a
particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the
a. Affective commitment: emotional attachment to the organization and
a belief in its values
b. Continuance: perceived economic value of remaining with an
organization compared to leaving it
c. Normative: an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or
ethical reasons
4. Perceived organizational support: the degree to which employees believe the
organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
5. Eployet egageet: a idiidual’s ioleet ith, satisfatio ith
and enthusiasm for the work he/she does
iv. Job satisfaction:
1. Measuring job satisfaction:
a. Global rating method: response to a few general questions, such as
all thigs osidered, ho satisfied are you ith your jo
b. Summation of job facets: it identifies elements of a job and asks for
the employee’s feeligs aout eah
i. i.e. nature of the work, supervision, present pay, etc
2. How satisfied are people overall?
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