Chapter 1 Notes

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Marine science
MNS 307
Dong- Ha Min

1 Chapter 1: The Water Planet Hypothesis- explanation of scientific data Big Bang- envisions all energy and matter in the universe as having initially been concentrated in an extremely hot, dense singularity much smaller than an atom. Galaxies- composed of clumps of stars Clusters- groups in which galaxies are found; one cluster could contain thousands of galaxies Nebula- the collapse of a single, rotating interstellar cloud of gas and dust that includes material that is produced within older stars and dispersed into space when the old stars explode There are two possible sources for the Earth’s oceans: the interior of the Earth and outer space Traditionally, scientists suggested that the water in the oceans and atmosphere originated in the interior of Earth in a region called the mantle and was brought to the surface by volcanism. This traditional view is being challenged by a bold new suggestion that large volumes of water are continually being added from outer space. Dayglow- ultraviolet light, invisible to the naked eye, emitted by atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere when it absorbs and reradiates electromagnetic energy from the Sun Radiometric dating- used by Rutherford and Boltwood, utilizes radioactive decay to date rock and mineral samples Radioactive isotopes- has an unstable nucleus which changes or decays and emits one or more subatomic particles plus energy Half-life- the time over which one-half of the atoms of a radioactive isotope decay; characteristic and constant The most widely accepted age of Earth is between 4.5 billion and 4.6 billion years Vertebrates- animals with a spinal column Tropic of Cancer- 23 ½°N Summer solstice- about June 22, the day with the longest period of daylight and the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere Arctic Circle- 66 ½°N Antarctic Circle- 66 ½°S 2 Autumnal Equinox- Sept. 23, the sun stands directly above the equator Tropic of Capricorn- 23 ½°S Winter solstice- Dec. 21, when the suns stands over the Tropic of Capricorn Vernal Equinox- March 21, the sun stands again above the equator; spring begins in the Northern He
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