MIS 301 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Geotargeting, Contextual Advertising, Web Server

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Chapter 14: “Google: Search, Online Advertising and Beyond”
Advergames: advertising using games
i.e. Stride Gum;s Chew Challenge
For long-term and immersive brand engagement
Click-through rate (CTR): the number of users who clicked on an ad divided by the number of times the ad
was delivered (impressions)
Measures the percentage of people who clicked on an ad to arrive at a destination-site
Content adjacency problems: a situation where ads appear alongside text the advertiser would like to avoid
Contextual advertising: advertising based on a Website’s content
Cookie: unique identifiers of websites; a line of identifying text, assigned and retrieved by a given Web server
and store by your browser
Used by a firm’s website to track activity
Third-party cookies are used to identify user behavior across multiple websites
Cost per thousand (CPM): payment for every 1000 impressions; targeted more for creating awareness than
generating click-throughs
Cost-per-action (CPA): pays when a user performs a certain action, like signing up for a service or making a
Cost-per-click (CPC): the maximum amount of money an advertiser is willing to pay for each click on their
ad; also interchangeable with pay-per-click, a concept where advertisers don’t pay unless someone click
on their ad
Geotargeting: identifying a user’s physical location for the purpose of delivering tailored ads or other content
Google ads are geotargeted based on IP address
Interstitials: ads that run before a user arrives at a Web site’s contents
Keyword advertising: ads that appeared based on a user’s query
Advertisers often bid on keywords and phrases that want to use to trigger the display of their ad
Market capitalization (market cap): the value of a firm calculated by multiplying its share price by the number
of shares
Google is the most valuable media company on the planet
Opt-in: program (typically a marketing effort) that requires customer consent; this is contrasted to opt-out
programs which enroll all customers by default and they have to unregister if they don’t want to be
A part of creating more transparency and user control for online advertising
Organic (or natural) search: search engine results returned and ranked according to relevance
Google uses PageRank to determine the order of search results
Ranks by how many pages are linked to them
Query: a search
Search engine optimization (SEO): the process of improving a page’s organic search results
Critical for marketing organizations so that customers will discover it
Server farm: a massive network of computer servers running software to coordinate their collective use; they
provide the infrastructure backbone to SaaS and hardware cloud efforts as well as many large-scale
Internet companies
Google has over 1.4 million servers in over 12 server farms worldwide
Google links several servers and server containers together to increase fault tolerance, therefore no
single failure should interrupt operations
o Technicians can easily swap out broken pieces
Software robots, spiders, Web crawlers: software that traverses available web links in an attempt to perform a
given task
Search engines use them to discover documents for indexing and retrieval
Every online firm provides a list of all of the public, named servers on its networks (domain name
service or DNS) by which software robots start at the first page on every public server and follow
every available link, traversing a Web site until all pages are uncovered
Google crawls frequently updated sites more often than websites that are not updated a lot
WiFi: wireless local-area networking devices
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