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Chapter 2

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NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

Chapter Two: Planning a Healthy Diet 2.1 Principles and Guidelines Eating pattern – customary intake of foods and beverages over time Diet-planning principles: 1. Adequacy – diet that provides sufficient energy and enough of all nutrients to meet the needs of healthy people 2. Balance – providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body’s needs 3. Kcalories (energy) control – management of food energy intake a. The key is to select foods of high nutrient density 4. Nutrient density – a measure of nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides a. Promotes adequacy and kcalorie control b. The more nutrients, the fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density c. Daily recommendations v. breakfast d. Empty-kcalorie foods – foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins, and minerals i. Potato chips, candy, colas e. Nutrient profiling – ranking foods based on their nutrient composition 5. Moderation – providing enough but not too much of a substance a. Contributes to adequacy, balance and kcalorie control b. Solid fats – fats not liquid at room temp i. Hydrogenated food ii. Contain more saturated and trans fats c. Added sugars – sweeteners added to foods 6. Variety – eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups a. Improves nutrient adequacy Dietary guidelines for Americans: Those guidelines translate the nutrient recommendations of DRI into food recommendations. In general, a healthy diet:  Emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free and low-fat milk products  Includes lean meats, poultry, seafood, legumes, egg, seed and nuts  Is low in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars  Stays within your daily energy needs for your recommended body weight By law, this guideline are reviewed and revised as needed every 5 years! Chapter Two: Planning a Healthy Diet 2.2 Diet-planning Guides Food group plans – diet-planning tools that sort foods into groups based on nutrient content and then specify that people should eat certain amounts of foods from each group  5 groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, milk and milk products FRUITS:  Contribute folate [folic acid (vitamin B9)], vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium and fiber  Consume a variety of fruits and choose whole or cut-up fruits more often than fruit juice o Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, blueberries, cherries, grapefruit, etc.  Limit these fruits that contain solid fats and/or added sugars o Canned or frozen fruit in syrup, fruit drinks with sugars, fried plantains VEGETABLES:  Contribute folate, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin E, magnesium, potassium and fiber  Consume a variety of vegetables each day and choose from all 5 subgroups several times a week o Dark-green vegetables  Broccoli, leafy greens, spinach, romaine lettuce, etc. o Red and orange vegetables  Carrots, pumpkin, red bell peppers, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, vegetable juice, etc. o Legumes  Black beans, black-eyed peas, kidney beans, pinto beans, soybeans, white beans, etc. o Starchy vegetables  Cassava, corn, green peas, lima beans, potatoes, hominy o Other vegetables  Artichokes, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, cabbages, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, green bell peppers, mushrooms, etc.  Limit these vegetables that contain solid fats and/or added sugars o Baked beans, coleslaw, French fries, potato salad, scalloped potatoes, tempura vegetables GRAINS:  Contribute folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, iron, magnesium, selenium and fiber  Make most (at least half) of grain selections whole grains o Whole grains  Amaranth, barley, brown rice, popcorn, cornmeal, oats, rye, wheat, wild rice, etc. o Enriched refined products  Bagels, breads, cereals, pastas, pretzels, white rice, rolls, etc.  Limit these grains that contain solid fats and/or added sugars o Biscuits, cakes, cookies, corn bread, crackers, doughnuts, fried rice, granola, muffins, pastries, etc. PROTEIN FOODS:  Contribute protein, essential fatty acids, niacin, thiamin, vi6amin B , v12amin B , iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc  Choose a variety of protein foods from the 3 subgroups o Seafood  Fish, flounder, cod, shellfish, clams, crabs, lobsters, etc. o Meats, poultry, eggs Chapter Two: Planning a Healthy Diet  Lean or low-fat meats (pork, ham, lamb, game), poultry (no skin), eggs o Nuts, seeds, soy products  Unsalted nuts, pecans, pumpkin seeds, legumes, tofu, peanut butter, peanuts, walnuts, etc.  Limit these protein foods that contain solid fats and/or added sugars o Bacon, baked beans, fried meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, hot dogs, marbled steaks, sausages, spare ribs MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS:  Contribute protein, riboflavin, vitami12B , calcium, potassium, and when fortified, vitamin A and vitamin D  Make fat-free or low-fat choices, choose other calcium-rich foods if you don’t consume milk o Fat-free or 1% low-fat milk and fat-free or 1% low-fat milk products such as buttermilk, cheeses, yogurt, fat-free fortified soy milk  Limit these milk products that contain solid fats and/or added sugars o Chocolate milk, frozen yogurt, ice cream, milk shakes, pudding, sherbet OILS:  IS NOT A FOOD GROUP  Contribute vitamin E and essential fatty acids  Use oils instead of solid fats, when possible o Liquid vegetable oils such as canola, corn, flaxseed, nut, olive, peanut, etc.  Limit these solid fats o Butter, animal fats, stick margarine, shortening USDA food patterns: Recommended amounts:  A person needing 2000 kcal a day would select o 2 cups of fruit o 2 ½ cups of vegetables o 6 ounces of grain foods o 5 ½ ounces of protein foods o 3 cups of milk or milk products Notable nutrients: Legumes – plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein compared with other plant-derived foods  In both vegetables and protein groups  Key nutrients o As protein group  Protein, zinc and iron o As vegetable group  Fiber, folate and potassium Nutrients of concern: dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium and potassium Nutrient-dense choices By consistently selecting nutrient-dense foods, a person can obtain all the nutrients needed and still keep kcalories under control. Discretionary kcalories: Discretionary kcalories – the kcalories remaining in a person’s energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient-dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day Chapter Two: Planning a Healthy Diet  One can choose to use the remaining kcal by eating a few food with fats or added sugar, alcohol, etc.  If you want to lose weight, a person wouldn’t use these kcal Sedentary Active Women 19-30 yr 1900 kcal 2400 kcal 31-50 yr 1800 kcal 2200 kcal 51+ 1600 kcal 2100 kcal Men 19-30 yr 2500 kcal 3000 kcal 31-50 yr 2300 kcal 2900 kcal 51+ 2100 kcal 2600 kcal Sedentary – daily day-to-day activities Active – daily day-to-day activities plus physical activity Serving equivalents Serving sizes – the standardized quantity of a food Portion sizes – the quantity of a food served or eaten at one meal or snack; not a standard amount Ethnic food choices You can sort ethnic foods into their appropriate food groups Vegetarian food guide Vegetarian diets are plant-based eating patterns that rely mainly on grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, seeds and nuts Mixture of foods Some foods fall into two or more food groups. Example: A taco represents 4 different food groups  Taco shell from the grains group  The onions, lettuce, and tomatoes from the vegetables group  The ground beef from the protein foods group  Cheese from the milk group MyPlate A program made by USDA  An education tool to illustrate the five food groups  Designed to remind consumers to make healthy food choices Recommendations versus Actual Intakes Healthy Eating Index – an assessment tool used to measure how well a diet meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines Chapter Two: Planning a Healthy Diet MyPlate Shortcomings First main criticism is that MyPlate fails to convey enough information to help con
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