Textbook Notes (369,102)
United States (206,205)
Nutrition (22)
NTR 306 (22)
Chapter 6

NTR 306 Chapter 6 Notes.docx

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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NTR 306
Professor
Deanna Staskel

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Chapter 6: Protein – Amino Acids AMERICANS TEND TO OVEREAT PROTEIN! GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND HEALING  need protein!!! Carbohydrates = energy, lipids = energy/long term storage, proteins = MANY IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS Protein functions in the body:  Structural material o Proteins form integral parts of most body tissues o Provide strength and shape to skin, tendons, membranes, muscles, organs and bones  Enzymes o Proteins facilitate chemical reactions  Hormones o Proteins regulate body processes (some but not all hormone are proteins)  Acid-base balance o Proteins help maintain acid-base balance of body fluids by acting as buffers  Transportation o Proteins transport substances such as lipids, vitamins, minerals and oxygen around the body  Antibodies o Proteins inactivate foreign invaders, thus protecting the body against diseases  Energy and glucose o Proteins provide some fuel and glucose IF NEEDED for the body’s energy needs  Other o Protein fibrin creates blood clots o Protein collagen forms scars [scar formation] o Protein opsin participates in vision Amino acids [building blocks of proteins]  Consists of o Amino group o Acid group o Hydrogen atom o Side group  Makes each amino acid unique  Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen (CHON)  20 different amino acids  Essential amino acids – must be consumed in the diet o Tryptophan: relaxing properties, creates serotonin; ex: turkey o KNOW THE ESSENTIAL AA FOR THE TEST!!!  Nonessential amino acids – can be synthesized in the body from other amino acids Chapter 6: Protein – Amino Acids  Conditionally essential amino acids – can’t be synthesized due to illness or lack of necessary precursors o Premature infants lack sufficient enzymes needed to create arginine [potent healing properties] Protein Digestion: 1. Mouth a. Mechanical digestion of protein by mastication b. Mixing food with salivary juices to form a bolus 2. Stomach a. HCl acid denatures protein b. Activates pepsinogen to active form pepsin i. Protease (enzyme that digests proteins) c. Pepsin breaks the polypeptide chain into smaller polypeptides 3. Small intestines a. Enzymes from pancreas enter the small intestine and continue to cleave peptide bonds i. Results into dipeptides, tripeptides, and single amino acids 4. Small intestine lining a. Tripeptidases and dipeptidases on the surface of the small intestine finish the digestion to ield single amino acids, which can then be absorbed Enzymes involved in protein digestion: Digestive enzyme Where released Purpose Trypsin From pancreas to small intestine Breaks apart peptide bonds Chymotrypsin From pancreas to small intestine Breaks apart peptide bonds Carboxypeptidase From pancreas to small intestine Breaks free one AA at a time from the carboxyl end of a peptide chain Aminopeptidase Brush border of the small intestine Breaks free the end AA from tri- and dipeptides into single amino acids Tripeptidase Brush border of the small intestine Breaks tripeptides into single amino acids Dipeptidase Brush border of the small intestine Breaks dipeptides into single amino acids Amino Acid Absorption (AAA):  Absorbed into the intestinal cells  Absorbed AA are transported from the intestines to the liver  In the liver, AA are o Used to synthesize new proteins o Converted to energy, glucose or fat o Released to the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body Amino Acid Pool:  AA are available from our diet and from breakdown of body tissue (protein turnover) o Can be used for protein synthesis o Used for energy or made into fat for storag
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