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Chapter 7

NTR 306 Chapter 7 Highlight Notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

Chapter 7 Highlight: Alcohol in the Body (page 220-229) Alcohol – a class of organic compounds containing hydroxyl (OH) groups Most people associate alcohol with:  Beer – alcoholic beverage traditionally brewed by fermenting malted barley and adding hops for flavor  Wine – alcoholic beverage traditionally made by fermenting a sugar source such as grape juice  Liquor (distilled spirits) – an alcoholic beverage traditionally made by fermenting and distilling a carbohydrate source such as molasses, potatoes, or corn Ethanol – a particular type of alcohol found in beer, wine and liquor; also called ethyl alcohol  Has only 2 carbons and one OH group Glycerol (with 3 OH groups and 3 carbons) is the alcohol used to make triglycerides! Drug – a substance that can modify one or more of the body’s functions Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010:  If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation o Women – 1 drink per day o Men – 2 drinks per day  Cannot be consumed by pregnant women, children, etc.  Should not be consumed while engaging in activities that require skill or coordination Drink – any alcoholic beverage that delivers ½ ounce of pure ethanol  5 ounces of wine  10 ounces of wine cooler  12 ounces of beer  1 ½ ounces of liquor (80 proof of whiskey, scotch, rum or vodka) o Proof – the percentage of alcohol in distilled liquor; 100 proof is 50% alcohol, 90 proof is 45% alcohol, etc. ALCOHOL’S INFLUENCE In the GI tract:  Alcohol needs no digestion and is quickly absorbed across the walls of an empty stomach o On a full stomach, alcohol is more delayed in influencing the brain o Cannot be stored in the body; highly toxic~  Carbohydrate snacks slow alcohol absorption and high-fat snacks slows peristalsis [keeping alcohol in the stomach LONGER]I  Alcohol dehydrogenase – enzyme active in the stomach and the liver that converts ethanol to acetaldehyde o Women produce this less than men! In the Liver:  Liver cells are the first to receive alcohol-laden blood  Only cells that can make enough alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize the alcohol  Can be permanently changed of its structure  Drink slowly enough to allow the liver to keep up – no more than one drink per hour!  High concentrations of acetaldehyde can lead to ALCOHOL ABUSE!  Stages of liver deterioration o 1. Fatty liver o 2. Fibrosis [liver cells lose their function] o 3. Cirrhosis [liver cells turn orange, die and harden, permanently losing their function] Chapter 7 Highlight: Alcohol in the Body (page 220-229)  MEOS (microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system) – a system of enzymes in the liver that oxidize alcohol AND several classes of drugs o Stimulated by high blood concentrations and repeated exposures to alcohol In the Brain:  Narcotic – a drug that dulls the senses, induces sleep, and becomes addictive with long use  Frontal lobe o Judgment and reasoning centers are most sensitive to alcohol o Alcohol sedates the frontal lobe  Midbrain o Speech becomes challenging and vision becomes blurry  Cerebellum o Voluntary muscle control is affected (staggering, slur their speech)  Pons, medulla oblongata o Respiration and heart action are last to be affected o Brain is completely subdued o Person passes out at this point DEHYDRATION:  Alcohol depressed production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) o Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that retains water o Which is why people urinate more when drinking MALNUTRITION:  For some, alcohol may suppress food intake and prevent weight gains, while others have their appetite increased o Added energy (low to moderate drinkers) vs. substituted energy (heavy drinkers)  Alcohol = 7kcal/g  Alcohol abuse creates a folate (B vitamin) deficiency  Wernicke-Korsakoff alcoholism – deficiency of thiamin (vitamin B) o Characterized by paralysis of the eye muscles, poor muscle coordination, impaired
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