NTR 306 Chart of Vitamins and Minerals.docx

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Department
Nutrition
Course
NTR 306
Professor
Deanna Staskel
Semester
Spring

Description
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin and Chief Deficiency symptoms: Toxicity Food Functions: Symptoms: sources: Thiamin: Part of Beriberi: (edema or muscle None. Enriches, coenzyme TPP in wasting), anorexia and fortified or energy metabolism weight loss, neurological whole grain disturbances, muscular products; pork weakness, heart enlargement and failure. Riboflavin: Part of Inflammation of the mouth, None. Milk products, coenzyme FAD and skin, and eyelids enriched, FMN in energy fortified, or metabolism whole grain products;liver Niacin: part of Pellagra (diarrhea, Niacin flush, liver protein rich coenzyme NAD and dermatitis, and dementia) damage, impaired foods NADP in energy glucose tolerance metabolism Biotin:part of coenzyme Skin rash, hair loss, None Widespread in in energy metabolism neurological disturbances foods, GI bacteria synthesis Pantothenic acid: part Digestive and neurological None widespread of of coenzyme A in disturbances foods energy metabolism Vitamin B6: part of scaly dermatitis, depression, Nerve Protein rich coenzymes used in confusion, convulsions, degeneration,skin foods amino acid and fatty anemia lesions acid metabolism Folate: Activates anemia, glossitis, masks vitamin B12 legumes, vitamin B12, helps neurological disturbances, deficiency vegetables, synthesize DNA for new elevated homocysteine fortified grain cell growth products Vitamin B12: activates anemia; nerve damage and none foods derived folate; helps synthesize paralysis from animals DNa for new cell growth; protects nerve cells Vitamin C: synthesis of scurvy (bleeding gums, Diarrhea, GI fruits and collagen, carnitine, pinpoint hemorrhages, distress vegetables hormones, abnormal bone growth and neurotransmitters’; joint pain) antioxidants FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS: Vitamin and Chief Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms: Food sources: Functions: symptoms: Vitamin A: vision; Infectious disease, Reduced bone Retinol; milk and maintenance of night blindness, mineral density, liver milk products cornea, epithelial blindness abnormalities, birth cells, mucous (xerophthalmia), defects Beta-carotene: dark membranes, skin; keratinization green, leafy and deep bone and tooth yellow/orange growth; vegetables reproductions; immunity Vitamin D: rickets, osteomalacia calcium imbalance synthesized in the mineralization of (calcification of soft body with the help of bones (raises blood tissues and formation sunshine; fortified calcium and of stones) milk phosphorus by increasing absorption from digestive tract, withdrawing calcium from bones, stimulating retention by kidneys) Vitamin E: Erythrocyte Hemorrhagic effects Vegetable oils Antioxidant hemolysis, nerve (stabilization of cell damage membranes, regulation of oxidation reactions, protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] and vitamin A Vitamin K: Hemorrhage none known Synthesized in the Synthesis of blood body by GI bacteria; clotting proteins and dark green, leafy bone proteins vegetables MAJOR MINERALS Chief Functions: Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms: Significant sources: symptoms: Sodium: maintains Muscle cramps, Edema, acute table salt, soy sauce, normal fluid and mental apathy, loss hypertension moderate amounts in electrolyte balance; of appetite meats, milks, breads, assists in nerve and vegetables; large impulse transmission amounts in and muscle processed foods contractions Chloride: maintains Do not occur under vomiting Table salt, soy sauce; normal fluid and normal circumstances moderate amounts in electrolyte balance; meats, milks, eggs; part of hydrochloric large amounts in acid found in the processed foods stomach, necessary for proper digestion Potassium: irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, all whole grains, maintains normal fluid muscle weakness,
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