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Chapter 13

NTR 306 Chapter 13 Trace Minerals Notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

Chapter 13: Trace Minerals Main trace minerals:  Iron  Copper  Zinc  Iodine  Selenium  Manganese  Fluoride  Molybdenum  Chromium IRON (Fe):  MOST ABUNDANT TRACE MINERAL IN THE BODY  Two forms in food o Heme iron  More easily absorbed o Nonheme iron  Bioavailability  Decreased by phytates, oxalates, and polyphenols  Increased by vitamin C and MFP factor  80% of iron consumed  Absorption affected by alkaline environment of the small intestines  Absorption, transportation, storage, and excretion o Heme and nonheme iron are each absorbed differently o Ferrous form (Fe ) is the absorption form o Ferritin – storage form of iron found in the intestine o Transferrin – protein carrier for iron in the body  Absorption is influenced by iron stores o  Functions: o Major component of hemoglobin and myoglobin  Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide  Chapter 13: Trace Minerals o Participates in energy metabolism o Important for immune function  Necessary for production f lymphocytes and macrophages  Protects from free radical damage o Helps enzymes involved in production of neurotransmitters  Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin  Daily needs: o Females  Age 19-50 – 18 mg/day  After menopause – 8 mg/day o Males  8 mg/day  Supplements are almost never needed and can be dangerous o UL  45 mg/day  Amount is too high for individuals with liver disease, hemochromatosis, or other diseases that affect iron stores in the body  Food sources: o  Too much! o Symptoms: constipation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea o Accidental consumption of supplements containing Fe is the LEADING CAUSE of poisoning deaths in children
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