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Chapter 12

NTR 306 Chapter 12 Major Minerals Notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

Chapter 12: Major Minerals What are minerals?!  Inorganic elements essential to human health  14 minerals are essential  Present in all body tissues and fluids o Necessary for most physicochemical processes that take place in the body  Two groups: o Major/macro minerals o Trace/micro minerals Mineral Bioavailability: Mineral Balance:  Body maintains tight control over mineral balance o GI tract  Regulates absorption from food based on the body’s need  Minerals are excreted in the feces or reabsorbed through the large intestine o Kidneys  Excretes excess and reabsorbs the minerals when the body needs them POTASSIUM:  Major intracellular cation (+ ion)  Helps maintain fluid balance  Aids in muscle contraction & nerve impulse conduction o Is absorbed in the small intestine o Kidneys maintain balance by excreting excess  Minor amounts are lost in SWEAT  Functions: o Help lower high blood pressure  Causes kidneys to excrete excess sodium o Helps buffer blood (maintaining pH in blood) o Preserve calcium and phosphorus in the bones  Helps reduce kidney stones  Daily needs: o AI for all adults is 4700 mg/day o Most Americans fall short  Women consume ~2200-2300 mg/day  Men consume ~3300-3400 mg/day Chapter 12: Major Minerals  Too much! Or too little! o Hyperkalemia – too much potassium in the blood o Hypokalemia – too little blood potassium o Increased risk of hypertension, kidney stones and loss of bone mass with moderately low intake MINERALS MAKE UP BONES AND TEETH:  Minerals make up the crystalline structure (hydroxyapatite) that gives strength to bones/eeth o Major minerals  Calcium  Phosphorus  Magnesium o Trace mineral  Fluoride CALCIUM:  MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN THE BODY  Over 99% of the body’s calcium is located in the bones and teeth  Absorption varies based on bioavailability o Vitamin D and lactose improve absorption o Low protein intake reduces absorption o High protein intake increase excretion in the urine o If deficient, absorption increases o The more calcium that’s consumed at one time, the less that’s absorbed  No more than ~500 mg at a time  Tightly controlled by hormones in response to changes in blood calcium levels o Chapter 12: Major Minerals  Functions: o Helps build strong bones and teeth  Cortical bone  Trabecular bone – more sensitive to changes in dietary calcium o Muscle contraction o Nerve transmission o Blood vessel dilation and contraction o Blood clotting o Help lower high blood pressure o Help protect the lining of the colon from damaging bile acid and cancer-promot
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