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Chapter 11

NTR 306 Chapter 11 Fat Soluble Vitamins Notes.docx

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NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

Chapter 11: Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat-soluble Vitamin Absorption and Storage:  Absorbed in the duodenum  Storage o Vitamin A = mainly liver o Vitamins A, K & E = mainly liver o Vitamin D mainly = fat and muscle tissue Vitamin A:  A family of fat-soluble retinoids o Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid are the 3 ACTIVE forms in the body o Preformed vitamin A = retinyl esters  Found primarily in animal foods o Provitamin A compounds (the most active is Beta-Carotene) converted to  retinal   Carotenoids – pigments which give color to some fruits & veggies like carrots, butternut squash and cantaloupe  Absorption can be increased by inclusion of fat in a meal  Functions: o Vision o Growth and development of cells and healthy bones o Reproduction o A healthy immune system  Too much! o Excessive amounts of preformed vitamin A  accumulate to toxic levels  Hypervitaminosis A – serious liver damage and result in death o Overconsumption  During pregnancy  birth defects in the face, skull and CNS of the child Chapter 11: Fat Soluble Vitamins  Can potentially result in osteoporosis and bone fractures in adults o Carotenoids in foods ARE NOT TOXIC  Excess can cause carotendodermia  Too little! o Chronic vitamin A deficiency = BLINDNESS o Prolonged vitamin A deficiency = xerophthalmia  Leading cause of preventable blindness in children, mostly in developing countries o Keratinization of epithelial tissues  Vitamin D:  “sunshine vitamin”  Exposure to sunlight (UV rays) o Cholesterol-containing compound in skin converted  inactive form of vitamin D o Inactive form converted  circulating form in liver  active form in kidneys  Metabolism of vitamin D: o Chapter 11: Fat Soluble Vitamins  2 types: o Vitamin D2(ergocalciferol) [FOUND IN PLANT FOODS] o Vitamin D3(cholecalciferol) [FOUND IN ANIMAL FOODS AND MADE IN THE BODY]  Functions: o Active from acts as a hormone  Regulates 2 important bone minerals: calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)  Stimulates intestinal absorption of Ca and P o To maintain healthy blood levels o Build and maintain bones  When dietary calcium is inadequate  vitamin D and parathyroid hormone cause Ca to lea
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