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NTR 306 (22)
Chapter 10

NTR 306 Chapter 10 Water Soluble Vitamins Notes.docx

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NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

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Chapter 10: Water Soluble Vitamins Classification of vitamins:  Based on solubility o 9 water-soluble: B vitamin complex and vitamin C  Digesting and absorbing water-soluble vitamins  o 4 fat-soluble: vitamins A, D, E and K  Solubility influences a vitamin’s o Digestion o Absorption o Transportation o Storage o Excretion  VITAMIN C:  Also known as ascorbic acid  Water-soluble vitamin  Unlike most mammals, humans don’t have the ability to make their own vitamin C o Must obtain through diet [ESSENTIAL VITAMIN] Chapter 10: Water Soluble Vitamins  RDA for adults o Males – 90 mg/d o Females – 75 mg/d o Smokers – an additional 35 mg/d o Upper limit – 2000 mg/d  Toxicity – consuming too much can cause o Nausea o Stomach cramps o Diarrhea  PLANT SOURCES are the major food sources  Major functions o Collagen formation  Key protein in our connective tissues, cartilage and tendons o Antioxidant  Regenerates other antioxidants  Like vitamin E  Can protect from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species  Can be generated during normal metabolism and through exposure to toxins and pollutants o Iron absorption o Immune system o Synthesis of carnitine  Essential for the transport of fat to mitochondria, for conversion to energy o Synthesis of the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine  Critical to brain function and are known to affect mood  ROLE  o  Scurvy – weakening of blood vessels, connective tissue and bone, which contain collagen o Symptoms: bleeding and bruising easily, hair and tooth loss, joint pain and swelling  Deficiencies of vitamin C o Scorbutic gums – mouth lesion o Pinpoint hemorrhages – small red spots appear in the skin, indicating spontaneous bleeding internally Chapter 10: Water Soluble Vitamins B Vitamins: 8 B-Vitamins:  Vitamin B1 (thiamin) o RDA for adults  Males – 1.2 mg/d  Females – 1.1 mg/d o Toxicity – NONE KNOWN o Sources of thiamin       o Major functions  Synthesis of DNA and RNA  Vital part of thiamin pyrophosphate [coenzyme that is important for energy metabolism o Deficiencies  Beriberi  Symptoms: o Loss of appetite o Weight loss o Confusion o Muscle weakness o Peripheral neuropathy  Classifications: o Wet – edema and congestive heart failure o Dry – muscle wasting without edema or nerve degeneration  Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) o RDA for adults  Males – 1.3 mg/d  Females – 1.1 mg/d o Toxicity – NONE KNOWN o Functions  Maintenance of the integrity of the membranes of the skin, eyes and GI tract  major function: part of the coenzyme [energy metabolism]  Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)  Or flavin mononucleotide (FMN) o Deficiencies  Ariboflavinosis – cells in tissues lining the throat, mouth, tongue and lips becomes inflamed or swollen  Sore throat  Stomatitis  Glossitis  Cheilosis Chapter 10: Water Soluble Vitamins  Vitamin B3 (niacin) o Major food sources  Body manufacturers from tryptophan  Only occurs after protein synthesis needs have been met  Lean meats  Grains and cereals o RDA for adults  Males – 16 mg/d  Females – 14 mg/d  Upper level – 35 mg/d o Toxicity  NONE KNOWN from normal dietary intake  Excess supplements or too many overly fortified foods  “Niacin Flush” o Reddish coloring of the face, arms and chest  Nausea, vomiting, heartburn  Possibel from prolonged use of high doses  Liver toxicity  Riased blood glucose levels o Major functions  In therapeutic doses  Lowers total cholesterol in the blood  Lowers triglycerides  Raises HDL cholesterol  2 active coenzyme forms (metabolic reactions)  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD )
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