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Chapter 9

BIOL 4309 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Tachycardia, Addiction, Psychological Dependence

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BIOL 4309
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Chapter 9 Drug Abuse and Addiction
Features of drug abuse and dependence
Drug addiction a neurobiological disease where the individual is physically, mentally, (or both) dependent on
many types of addictive drugs
Dependence - They behave in a way where if they stop or reduce drug use, the patient will suffer from
withdrawal and/or tolerance symptoms
Drug addiction can be seen from two categories of dependence:
1) Physical dependence - defined by the appearance of physical withdrawal symptoms when the
substance is suddenly discontinued or reduced
Symptoms during withdrawal or reduction:
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Sweating
- Tremors
- Confusion
- Seizures
- Visual hallucinations
Results of physical dependence:
- Withdrawal motivates the individual to reinstate drug use
- Cocaine, marijuana, opiates, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbituates, alcohol, and nicotine can
induce physical dependence
- Not considered addictive but share this category: cortisone, B-blockers and most antidepressants
2) Psychological dependence mind dependence that mentally behaves the compulsive nature of drug
seeking (wanting), because the patient wants the drug
- Drug craving (wanting) the strong urge to take the drug
- Psychological dependence is a chronic, relapsing disorder. Characterized by repeated periods of
remission with many shifts (relapse).
- Cravings
- Irritability
- Insomnia
- Depression
- Anorexia
Drug addict image:
1) An unwashed heroin user huddled in an alley “shooting up” with a dirty syringe
2) “crack head” engulfed in a cloud of cocaine vapor in an inner-city crack house
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3) A wino staggering down the street begging for change to buy his next bottle
Not all drug users fit the above traditional images. The degree of addiction may vary with different
drugs used. Drug users may or may not have severe symptoms to be addicted
Substance-related disorders:
1) Substance dependence
2) Substance abuse
The American Psychiatric Association stopped using the terms addiction and addict since 2000
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)” issues the criteria for this drug-related
disorder by the terms of substance dependence and abuse
Substance dependence the more severe disorder and corresponds to the notion of addiction
Substance abuse the less severe disorder that may or may not lead to substance dependence
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