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Chapter 1

CSD 094 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Speech Perception, Phonation, Trachea


Department
Comm Sciences & Disorders
Course Code
CSD 094
Professor
Julia Walberg
Chapter
1

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Ch. 1 Language Development: An Introduction
Monday, August 29, 2016
9:19 PM
Learning Outcomes
After completion of this chapter, the reader will be able to:
1. Define the term Language
2. Describe how language relates to speech, hearing, and communication
3. Describe the major domains of language
4. Identify several remarkable features of language
5. Discuss the difference between language differences and language disorders
What is Language?
Language: a complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols that is used in various modes
for thought and communication
1. Language is a system of symbols
Morphemes: The smallest units of language that carry meaning, combined
they create words ; some words consist of a single Morpheme (School), many are
comprised of two or more (School-s / Pre-school-s) ; they exist in both written and
spoken format
Code: The translation of one type of information to another type of
information
Refernet: The aspect of the world to which a word refers ; this is arbitrary
The code we use to organize words into sentences is not arbitrary; rather, we
must follow specific rules for organizing thoughts into words and sentences
1. The system of language is conventional
Conventional: Users of a language abide by accepted rules
Language Community: A group of people who use a common language
2. The language system is dynamic
Language is in a state of activity and change, both within an individual who is
acquiring language and within a community that uses a certain language
3. Language is a tool for human connection
Communication: The process of sharing information, such as thoughts, feelings,
and ideas, among two or more persons
Although animals are able to communicate, the innate and specialized capacity
of humans to use language as a tool is what makes the human species unique
Language as a Module of Human Connection
Language is a cognitive tool that helps humans to develop the picture of the world that we use
for thinking. This picture of the world includes both symbolic representations of linguistic concepts
and formal syntactic or grammatical rules
Language emerged as a cultural and evolution rather than a biological evolution
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Higher Level Language Skills: Using language as a representational tool to store information and
carry out many cognitive processes such as reasoning, hypothesizing, memorizing, planning, and
problem solving
Modularity: A cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the
structures of the brain
Module: A specialized problem-solving device in the brain that responds to information of a
restricted type
How Does Language Relate To Speech, Hearing, and Communication?
Inner Language: thoughts and ideas
Written Language
Speech: The Neuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal
Hearing: The sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the human
brain
Speech
Speech involves the precise activation of muscles in four systems: respiration, phonation,
resonation and articulation
Respiration: A breath of air inspired into and then expired from the lungs to travel up the
trachea or wind pipe
Phonation: A breath of air moves through the vocal cords (within the trachea) which them are
set into vibration to create one's voice
Resonation: A breath of air enters the oral and nasal cavities where it resonates
Articulation: A breath of air is manipulated by the oral articulators, including the tongue, teeth,
lips and jaw, to emerge as a series of speech sounds that are combined into words and sentences
Model of Speech Production
Model: a way to represent an unknown event on the basis of the best current evidence
governing the event
Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning
Perceptual Target
Abstract representation of speech sound stream is produced
Motor Schema
Neurological brain systems produce a rough plan of the abstract representation.
General instructions are fed forward in syllable chunks to muscle groups involved
with speech
Speech Output
Air pressure is modulated as respiratory flow is sent forward. Articulators and oral
cavity are manipulated to produce words
Feedback
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