Section 1: are men and women born or made. Gender characteristics associated with being a woman or man in a particular culture and the way those characteristics intersect with dynamics of power. Gender studies: research into masculinity and femininity as flexible, complex, and historically and culturally constructed categories. Anthropologists consider the ways in which gender is constructed to be a central element in every aspect of human culture including sexuality, health, family, religion, economics, politics, sports, and individual identity formation: distinguishing between sex and gender. Sex: observable physical differences between male and female, especially biological differences related to human reproduction three primary factors considered in determining biological sex. Gonads (testes and ovaries) which produce different hormones. Chromosomes patterns (women with xx, men with xy) Gender: expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes. Biological science tended to create distinct mental maps of reality for male and female anatomy.