SOC 134 Chapter 3: Race and Racisms: Chapter 3- Racial Ideologies

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Race and Racisms: Chapter 3- Racial Ideologies
Mass Deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans
The implementation of the Chinese Exclusion Act lead to a shortage of immigrant laborers
Booming Californian agribusinesses turned to Mexican labor
1930: More than 1.5 Mexican and Mexican Americans in the US
The Great Depression lead to anti-Mexican sentiment as unemployment soared
Americans called for mass deportation
Immigration agents went door to door, deporting anyone without legal documentation
Internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans
Mass immigration of Japanese immigrants, skilled agricultural farmers, to work Californian and
Hawaiian fields
Alien Land Laws (1917)- Prevented people ineligible for citizenship from owning land
Executive Order 9066 (1942)- President Roosevelt signed order that those of Japanese
descent be detained and sent to internment camps
60% were US citizens, yet justification that US was at war with Japan
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
1932: 400 black men recruited to partake in a study for the long-term effects of syphilis
Men not told they had syphilis, but “bad-blood” and never actually given any treatment
for the disease (instead the doctors simply observed the effects until death)
1972: PHS employee leaked story to media
1973: NAACP filed a lawsuit and a $9 million settlement was awarded among families
The Civil Rights Movement and the Commitment to Change
Segregation- A policy of racial separation ensuring that whites have access to the best
opportunities and facilities
1896-1954: Legal to deny African Americans, Mexicans, American Indians, and Asians
access to public schools
Jim Crow Laws- A system of laws passed in the late 1800s denying non-whites equality
Civil rights movement was directed at ending Jim Crow Laws
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas- Landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court
decision in which the court determined that separate educational facilities were inherently
unequal and in violation
Plessy v. Ferguson- 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision in which the court
determined that state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities were
constitutional, so long as they were “separate but equal”
Plessy overturned by Brown in violation of the 14th Amendment
Civil Rights Movement- A series of mass protests between about 1950 and 1980 aiming
to achieve racial equality in law and practice
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955: Rosa Parks refused to move for a white passenger and was arrested in violation of city code
Sparked boycott in Montgomery, AL, of which Martin Luther King Jr. spearheaded
Sit-Ins
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1960: Four African American student entered a cafe and sat at the lunch counter (reserved for
whites) until the store closed
Sparked nation wide sit-ins
Lead to the creation of SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
Freedom Rides
Freedom Riders- Civil rights activists who rode buses in 1961 to test the U.S. supreme Court’s
ruling that segregation in interstate bus and rail systems was unconstitutional
First Freedom Ride ended early after the Riders were attacked
Called attention to ongoing segregation and brutality in the South
Old Versus New Racism: The Evolution of an Ideology
New Racism- An ideology in which it is not acceptable to make overtly racist statements yet
racial inequality persists
Racial segregation is compounded by socioeconomic segregation
Relies on mass media and popular beliefs to “help manufacture the consent that makes
the new racism appear to be natural, normal, and inevitable”
Racial inequality in the United States has become naturalized
Biological Racism
Biological Racism- The idea that whites are genetically superior to non-whites
Origins in scientific racism of the nineteenth century
Publication of The Bell Curve and Race: The Reality of Human Differences provide
evidence of the persistence of belief that whites are genetically superior
Cultural Racism
Cultural Racism- A way of thinking that attributes disadvantaged racial groups’ lack of prosperity
to their behavior and culture, rather than to structural factors
The standpoint that a particular culture inhibits success
Moynihan Report = an example of cultural racism, as it ignores structural factors of
racism and focuses on “fixing” black families
Color-Blind Universalism
Color-Blind Universalism- The idea that we should ignore skin color
Promoted by people who recognize that racial inequality is a problem in the United States
but contend that the best was to remedy racial inequality is through universalist programs
that help everyone, regardless of race
Yet, this idea allows racial inequality to persist
Four Frames of Color-Blind Racism
Color-Blind Racism- A racial ideology that explains contemporary racial inequality as the
outcome of non racial dynamics, such as market dynamics, naturally occurring phenomena, and
non-whites’ supposed cultural limitations
Abstract Liberalism- The first of Bonilla-Silva’s “frames” of color-blind racism. It involves using
liberal ideas such as equality of opportunity or freedom of choice to explain or justify racial
inequality
Naturalization- The second “frame” of color-blind racism, which permits people to explain racial
phenomena as if they were natural
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