PSYC 3710 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Where We Are, Walter Mischel, Victim Blaming

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I. The Self
A. The Self as both Active Agent and Object of Attention
1.James and Mead Shaped Contemporary Self Theories
a. two of the earliest contributors to the idea of the self
i. William James (1890) (hot perspective, emotion)
ii. George Herbert Mead (1934)
believed that the self emerges through social interaction
social relationships define who a person is
looks at how people react to them for a sense of self
cold perspective or cognitive
iii. both agreed that it is two different things
subject of awareness (I) actively perceiving the world
around you
object of awareness (me) what the I perceives about itself
b. Self-concept
i. the total su of a perso’s thoughts ad feeligs that help to defie
a person
ii. knowing oneself is important to have direction and meaning in life
iii. things become part of your self-concept through emotional
connections with them
iv. this means that a self-concept includes many things that are
symbolic of how one feels about themselves
v. not stable and consistent as what you identify yourself with changes
over time
vi.
c. Self-esteem
i. evaluative aspect of self-concept that lets someone know that
aspects of themselves are good, bad, or mediocre
ii. measured through success or failure in important aspects in our
lives
iii. if someone identifies as a musician, their self-esteem would be
based upon musical performance rather than other aspects
2.Self-awareness is Reflective Thinking
a. self-awareness is a psychological state of focusing attention on oneself
b. stepping outside of oneself
c. Self-awareness Development
i. hildre do’t possess self-awareness, it is developed later
ii. at 18 months they begin to not treat a reflection as another hild and
begin to recognize themselves
iii. develops at the same time as a rapid growth in spindle neurons in
the hild’s rai
d. Self-awareness in other animals
i. there is research supporting that other mammals also possess self-
awareness
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ii. could lead to the conclusion that they also have self-concepts, but it
is too early in research to tell
e. Disengaging self-awareness
i. when we are completing difficult tasks that require lots of
resources, it switches off self-awareness to conserve resources
ii. in quick and difficult decisions, we are less likely to consider our
o orals ad alues as e do’t hae resoures to thik
about it
iii. committing atrocities, profiling, and racism
f. Private and public self-awareness
i. Private self-awareness allows you to become more self-aware and
notice the discrepancies between your behavior and morals
ii. usually increases the emotions being felt at the time
iii. public self-awareness is your notice of external aspects such as
physical experience
iv. when this is higher, you are more likely to exhibit greater
conformity
v. self-consciousness is the habitual tendency to engage in self-
awareness
vi. constant focus on self-consciousness can lead to both a more
complex view of oneself and more depressive emotions
vii. people high in public self-consciousness are worried about what
others think of them
viii. people with high private and low public will act to their own beliefs
while the opposite will act confirmatively
g. Culture and self-awareness
i. those in collectivistic cultures are more likely to view themselves
through the eyes of another
ii. individualistic students were more likely to be self-critical when
forced into self-aware states
3.Self-Regulatio is the “elf’s Most Iportat Futio
a. Walter Mischel and the marshmallows
i. given a marshmallow and told if they wait 15 minutes before eating
it they would get a second one
ii. only about 1/3 waited for the second marshmallow
iii. then discovered by testing them when they were older that those
who waited were better academically
iv. those who were better at waiting showed more brain activity I later
studies as well
v. anterior cingulate cortex was more active as was self-awareness
b. self-regulation is forgoing immediate gratification for a bigger payoff later
c. OCD is taking regulation to unhealthy levels
d. Self-discrepancies
i. difference between ideal self and actual self
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