Chapter 5 Lecture Notes: Public Policing and Private Security

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ACCT 202
Christina Mancini

Intro to Criminal Justice, CRJS 181, 003, 23200, Mancini: Lecture Notes 9/12/13 Chapter 5: Public Policing and Private Security Terms Referenced: Shire reeve, Sheriff, Watch System, Justice of the Peace, Wickersham Commission, FBI, Biometrics, DNA Profiling. History of Police  Traced back to England –as far back as 1300s  Pledge System – families coming together to police themselves. They usually livid in rural areas.  Shire Reeve – (similar to a sheriff) – appointed by crown or other high ranking official.  Watch System – church members who policed their town  Justice of the Peace- assisted the Shire-reeve but also collected taxes and had other judicial responsibilities. Metropolitan areas  Private Police – private group that agreed to protect land or family of a wealthy family  Thief takers- found respective thieves and detained them, like modern day bounty hunters, they were given a fee o Corrupt system, not effective, very violent Fielding’s Bow Street Runners  Founded by two brothers  Not professional and not implemented on a grand scale  More effective Robert Peel – one of the fathers of early modern policing  Much improved, but still corruption problem  First organized police force Law Enforcement in Colonial America  Kept the peace and fought crime, also collected taxes and supervised elections  In rural southern areas, “slave patrols” were an early form of law enforcement  West = vigilantes Early Police Agencies (1800s) Boston, New York, Philadelphia  Political – folks hired were politically savvy, not the best of the best  Primitive  Little training – used brute force to do job  No education in the law – were not respected  Minimum supervision  Unlimited discretion Reform 1900s  Police administrative boards to reduce corruption (1957? New York City PD taken by the state.) o Emergence of Professionalism  IACP o Hiring people based on merit o Hierarchical system of authority o Specialized units (juveniles, women, treated differently) Wickersham Commission (1931)  Emphasized education for officers  August Vollmer – responsible for instituting university training  U.W. Wilson – Vollmer’s student o How do you gain the public’s trust? Policing in the 1960s  Lot of conflict, less trust in the government. Death Penalty support dropped below 50% not a lot of trust in officers  Growing crime rate  U.S. Supreme Court decisions designed to control police operations procedures ex) Miranda rights. Police discretion needed to be monitored. 1970s  Low
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