Intro To Criminal Justice, CRJS 181, 003, 23220, Mancini: Notes for 8/27/13
Criminal Justice System: The system of law enforcement, adjudication, and correction that is
directly involved in the apprehension, prosecution, and control of those charged with criminal
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA): Federal agency that provided technical
assistance and hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to state and local justice agencies between
1969 and 1982.
Miranda warning: Miranda v. Arizona established that suspects under arrest must be advised
that they have no obligation to answer questions and that they are entitled to have a lawyer
present during questioning, if necessary, at no expense to themselves.
Grand Jury: A type of jury responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence, and
Courtroom work group: A term used to imply that all parties in the justice process work
together in a cooperative effort to settle cases efficiently rather than to engage in a true
Criminal Justice refers to the agencies that dispense justice and the process by which
justice is carried out.
o Form of social control
Historically, we are in a better place, crime is lower/more stable than in 1990s
o Crime in Old West- Vigilantism
o Crime in the Cities (1900-1955)- Mass immigration led to rise in crime.
LEAA (1969-1982) – Provided monies to evaluate police procedures and pay employees.
Federal funds. Funds went to state and local governments.
Spike in crime in 1960s.
o Evidence based Justice – Determining through the use of the scientific method
whether criminal justice programs actually reduce crime rates and offender
Death penalty- 80% of Americans supported in 1990s, 24 hour news
cycle led to push to get tough. Sensationalism.
Mandatory minimum sentences Get tough- responsible in part for reducing crime, but other variables
also a factor. Parole was abolished in some states. No rehabilitation.
How will prisoners assimilate into society? No incentive to change.
Unintended Effects- Super Predators.
Social Control- 3 (interrelated) main components. Only tool the government has to
o Law enforcement
o Court System
o Correctional System
Currently huge costs. Costs federal, state, and local governments ~
$200 billion a year.
Must process, treat, and care for millions of people.
Evaluation/Research is expensive. Growing system/need/field
Ex) Florida- More money spent on corrections than education. 4th
largest state expenditure.
Healthcare is a big expenditure
Incarcerating more people, more than 13 million people are arrested
per year. More than 7 million are under some form of correctional
Significant declines in crime but increases in incarceration.
Incarceration trends don’t follow crime trends.
Community Corrections – Parole, probation.
o Local governments spend the most on crime. Increased spending 422% since
the 1990s. State governments spending have increased 548% and federal
spending has increased 749%.
o Police/Law enforcement spend the most on crime- Increased spending 420%
since the 1990s. Sheriffs’ office sometimes manage jails, not part of corrections.
Ex) Florida. Corrections expenditures have sky rocketed (graying of inmates,
rehabilitation, healthcare). Spending up 660%. Judicial- Pay prosecutors, judges,
etc. Processing more people. Spending up 503%.\
Justice Process – contains 15 stages. o Case Study) Jerry Sandusky – worked under Joe Paterno at Penn State
University. Created organization to help young kids. He molested a number of
boys. Big scandal developed when a number of victims came forward.
Psychological Analysis- Sandusky feels like a kid, therefore he molests
kids. He didn’t view his actions has bad because he saw himself as one
o Step 1. Initial Contact- Victim contacts police
o Step 2. Investigation – Cops went to facilities, anonymous tips, speaking with
witnesses. Grad assistant – Witness??
o Step 3. Arrest (probable cause)
o Step 4. Custody (Miranda rights- They (Investigators) read Sandusky his rights
o Step 5. Charging (Refer to prosecutor) – Cops give prosecutor evidence. Is there
o Step 6. Preliminary Hearing/ Grand Jury- Is there enough evidence to try the
person. Differs by state. In Preliminary Hearing¸ the Judge makes the decision
instead of Grand Jury.
o Step 7. Arraignment – Reading of 47 charges, reiterated rights. See where we
are. Make decision.
o Step 8. Bail/Detention- Can person get out of country? Passport. Only pay 10%
of bail. This is a hearing.
o Step 9. Plea Bargaining (most cases)- Sandusky didn’t plea, he went to trial.
o Step 10- Trial/Adjudication