Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Crime and Criminal Justice

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Criminal Justice
CRJS 181
Christina Mancini

Intro To Criminal Justice, CRJS 181, 003, 23220, Mancini: Notes for 8/27/13 Terms Criminal Justice System: The system of law enforcement, adjudication, and correction that is directly involved in the apprehension, prosecution, and control of those charged with criminal offenses. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA): Federal agency that provided technical assistance and hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to state and local justice agencies between 1969 and 1982. Miranda warning: Miranda v. Arizona established that suspects under arrest must be advised that they have no obligation to answer questions and that they are entitled to have a lawyer present during questioning, if necessary, at no expense to themselves. Grand Jury: A type of jury responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence, and issuing indictments. Courtroom work group: A term used to imply that all parties in the justice process work together in a cooperative effort to settle cases efficiently rather than to engage in a true adversarial procedure.  Criminal Justice refers to the agencies that dispense justice and the process by which justice is carried out. o Form of social control  Historically, we are in a better place, crime is lower/more stable than in 1990s o Crime in Old West- Vigilantism o Crime in the Cities (1900-1955)- Mass immigration led to rise in crime.  LEAA (1969-1982) – Provided monies to evaluate police procedures and pay employees. Federal funds. Funds went to state and local governments.  Spike in crime in 1960s. o Evidence based Justice – Determining through the use of the scientific method whether criminal justice programs actually reduce crime rates and offender recidivism.  Death penalty- 80% of Americans supported in 1990s, 24 hour news cycle led to push to get tough. Sensationalism.  Mandatory minimum sentences  Get tough- responsible in part for reducing crime, but other variables also a factor. Parole was abolished in some states. No rehabilitation. How will prisoners assimilate into society? No incentive to change.  Unintended Effects- Super Predators.  Social Control- 3 (interrelated) main components. Only tool the government has to control people. o Law enforcement o Court System o Correctional System  Currently huge costs. Costs federal, state, and local governments ~ $200 billion a year.  Must process, treat, and care for millions of people.  Evaluation/Research is expensive. Growing system/need/field  Ex) Florida- More money spent on corrections than education. 4th largest state expenditure.  Healthcare is a big expenditure  Incarcerating more people, more than 13 million people are arrested per year. More than 7 million are under some form of correctional supervision.  Significant declines in crime but increases in incarceration. Incarceration trends don’t follow crime trends.  Community Corrections – Parole, probation. o Local governments spend the most on crime. Increased spending 422% since the 1990s. State governments spending have increased 548% and federal spending has increased 749%. o Police/Law enforcement spend the most on crime- Increased spending 420% since the 1990s. Sheriffs’ office sometimes manage jails, not part of corrections. Ex) Florida. Corrections expenditures have sky rocketed (graying of inmates, rehabilitation, healthcare). Spending up 660%. Judicial- Pay prosecutors, judges, etc. Processing more people. Spending up 503%.\  Justice Process – contains 15 stages. o Case Study) Jerry Sandusky – worked under Joe Paterno at Penn State University. Created organization to help young kids. He molested a number of boys. Big scandal developed when a number of victims came forward.  Psychological Analysis- Sandusky feels like a kid, therefore he molests kids. He didn’t view his actions has bad because he saw himself as one of them. o Step 1. Initial Contact- Victim contacts police o Step 2. Investigation – Cops went to facilities, anonymous tips, speaking with witnesses. Grad assistant – Witness?? o Step 3. Arrest (probable cause) o Step 4. Custody (Miranda rights- They (Investigators) read Sandusky his rights o Step 5. Charging (Refer to prosecutor) – Cops give prosecutor evidence. Is there enough? o Step 6. Preliminary Hearing/ Grand Jury- Is there enough evidence to try the person. Differs by state. In Preliminary Hearing¸ the Judge makes the decision instead of Grand Jury. o Step 7. Arraignment – Reading of 47 charges, reiterated rights. See where we are. Make decision. o Step 8. Bail/Detention- Can person get out of country? Passport. Only pay 10% of bail. This is a hearing. o Step 9. Plea Bargaining (most cases)- Sandusky didn’t plea, he went to trial. o Step 10- Trial/Adjudication
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