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CHEM 1035
Preston Durrill

Chapter 4Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions All SectionsSolvents and SolutesWhen sugar is dissolved in water to form a solution we refer to water as the solvent and sugar as the soluteWe often categorize solvents as being polar or nonpolarSolutes can also be classified as molecular no ions formed or ionicIonic solutes are by definition polarMolecular solutes can range from nonpolar to highly polarWater a very polar substance is the most common solvent but there are many relatively common nonpolar solvents such as hexane CH a substance similar in structure to those 614which are found in gasolineWater as a SolventWhenever we speak of liquid solutions water is the solvent unless otherwise noted Water is a molecular substanceIt is not ionic Although the water molecule is neutral in charge and contains no ions there are regions of positive and negative character within the water moleculeThese regions of positive and negative character are due to the high electronegativity attraction for electrons of the oxygen atom and the low electronegativity of the hydrogen atomsThe basic rule of solubility is LIKE DISSOLVES LIKEWater polar would not be expected to dissolve hexane nonpolar and viceversaWater polar would be expected to be the best solvent for ionic compounds which are the height of polarity 2
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