PSYC 1004 Chapter 13: Key terms for final-- geller

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PSYC 1004
K A Hoffman

 Causes of Stress  Cognitive appraisal: Our interpretation of a stressor and our resources for dealing with it • Traumatic Stressors: A situation that threatens ones physical safety arousing feelings of fear, horror, or helplessness ▪ Vicarious Traumatization o Severe stress caused by exposure to traumatic images or stories that cause the observer to become engaged with the stressful material ▪ Collectivism vs. Individualism ▪ Humiliation o Stressors that involve humiliation (like losing a partner to another) or social rejection are more likely to cause depression than other stressors and bring depression more quickly o Evolutionary terms: loss of social status decreases chances of survival o Humiliation creates fear of being humiliated again ▪ Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A delayed stress reaction in which an individual involuntarily re-experiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of their past trauma. o 1 in 12 adults ▪ Usually sightings of killings/injury, natural disaster, or life threatening accident o Symptoms: distracted and disorganized, and experience difficult memories, numb and alienated, startle response, sometimes psychological afterefects • Chronic Stressors: Long lasting stressful ▪ Work Stress: Burnout vs. Engagement o Burnout: Syndrome of overwhelming exhaustions, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness. Feelings of cynicism and detachedness from the job and ineffectiveness and lack of accomplishment. ▪ Most noticeable in interpersonal jobs (Like doctors and teachers) ▪ Workload, Control, Rewards ▪ Community, Fairness, Values ▪ Compassion Fatigue vs. Compassion Satisfaction o Compassion fatigue: A state of exhaustion experienced by medical and psychological professionals, as well as caregivers, which leaves the individual feeling stressed, numb, or indifferent. o Compassion satisfaction: An appreciation of the work they do that drew them to the profession in the first place ▪ Daily Hassles o Hassles: Minor irritations and frustrations ▪ Can accumulate and can cause interpersonal difficulties o Relation between amount of hassles and physical healthy o Major life hassle is waiting Fight or flight response: Sequence of internal and behavioral processes triggered when a threat is perceived, preparing the organism for either struggle or escape. o Occurs in amygdala o Signs: Accelerated blood pressure, increased breathing, and profuse perspiration o Illustrates Accute stress: A temporary pattern of stressor activated stim  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Three phase pattern in response to a chronic stressor. Bodily response general rather than a specific adaptation effort • Discovered by Hans Selye o Discovered that different stressors trigger essentially the same systematic response o Under chronically stressful conditions can lead to heart disease, athsma, gastric ulcers, arthritis…etc Three Phases of respose to GAS • Alarm phase: o First stage during which body resources are mobilized to cope with the stressor o General arousal caused by: ▪ Increase of adrenal hormones ▪ Reaction of sympathetic nervous system • Sends signals to internal organs and Adrenal medulla • Resistance Phase o Second phase of GAS, During which the body adapts and maintains resources to cope with the stressor. o All psychological changes of the alarm phase remain in effect. Immune system remains in high gear and WBC count increases to fight off infection o Resistance during this stage applies only to original stressor ▪ Introduction of a second stimulus has detrimental effects because body is already put full efforts into fighting original stress. o Arousal subsides b/c of: ▪ Decrease in adrenal output ▪ Counterreaction of parasympathetic nervous system • Exhaustion phase o Body functions drop back into normal range and then become depleted ▪ Third phase o The body requires rest and rejuvenation to bring back up to normal levels. If not then illness/death may ensue o General arousal of stage 1 reappears: ▪ Powerful parasympathetic response opposes arousal ▪ If stressor is not removed in time then illness/death follows ▪ • Tend and Befriend o Stress response model proposing that females are biologically predisposed to respond to threat by nurturing and protecting offspring and seeking social support • Cortisol o Significantly higher w/ men in fight or flight responses o Stress steroid produced by fight or flight response • Oxytocin: o A hormone produced in both genders in response to a stressor o May combine with estrogen in females to prompt affiliation seeking behavior o Higher oxy levels are associated with greater calmness and decreased anxiety ------------------------ Dispositional Factors • Type A Personality & Hostility o Type A: Behavior pattern charact
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