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Chapter 1

CHM 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Boiling Point, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures

Course Code
CHM 111

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Chemistry is the study of matter & the change it undergoes
The study truly began in the 19th century, but has evolved greatly & is considered a modern
Macroscopic world vs. microscopic world - what can be observed w/ the naked eye vs. what
takes more indirect measures to observe
Scientific method: a systematic, nonrigid approach to research
1. Define the problem
2. Conduct experiments, make observations, obtain data
3. Interpretation
Data can be qualitative (general observations) or quantitative (numerical/measurement based)
Hypothesis: a tentative explanation for a set of observations
Law: a concise verbal/mathematical statement of a relationship b/w phenomena that is always
the same under the same conditions
Theory: a unifying principle that explains a body of facts/laws that are based on them
Matter: anything that occupies space & has mass
Substance: a form of matter w/ definite composition & distinct properties (eg. water,
ammonia, gold, oxygen)
o Elements: cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
118 different elements
o Compounds: substance composed of atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically
united in fixed proportions
Mixture: a combination of 2 or more substances that each retain distinct individual
properties/identities (eg. air, milk, cement)
o Homogeneous mixtures: same composition throughout
o Heterogeneous mixtures: composition is not uniform (iron & sand w/ magnet
Solid: molecules are close together, rigid, has definite shape & volume
Liquid: molecules are not as close together, less rigid, definite volume in a container
Gas: molecules not very close together, not definite shape or volume
Physical properties of matter: can be measured & observed w/o changing composition or
identity of substance (eg. color, melting point, boiling point)
Chemical properties of matter: observed by carrying out chemical change (eg. burning,
enzymatic reactions)
Measurable properties
o Extensive: additive, depends on how much matter is being considered (eg. mass,
o Intensive: not additive, doesn’t depend on the amount of matter considered (eg.
density, temperature)
Macroscopic properties: determined directly (direct observation or measurement)
Microscopic properties: determined indirectly (atomic/molecular scale)
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