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Chapter 5

CHM 111 Chapter 5: CHM111 (General Chemistry I) Textbook and Class Notes - Chapter 5


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHM 111
Professor
Lachgar
Chapter
5

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CHAPTER 5
Properties of gases: random molecular motion, forces of attraction are not strong, molecules
can move freely & independently of other molecules → gases are easier to study
o Assume volume & shape of a container, most compressible, low densities, mix
completely & evenly in a container (*densities usually expressed as g/L)
Normal atmospheric conditions: 25 & 1atm
Compounds: HF, HBr, CO, CH4, NH3, NO2, SO2, H2S, HCl, HI, CO2, C2H2, NO, N2O, SF6, HCN
Ionic compounds have strong electrostatic forces between cations & anions, & therefore do
not exist as gases at 25 & 1atm
Stronger intermolecular forces = less chance that a compound is a gas at normal atmospheric
conditions
SI Unit for pressure is pascal (Pa)
o 1Pa = 1N/m2
o Pressure = force applied over an area
o 99% of the atmosphere is within 32km of Earth’s surface due to densities of gases
Atmospheric pressure: pressure exerted by the atmosphere
o Air pressure results from collisions of air molecules & other substances
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o Barometer: measures atmospheric pressure
o Manometer: measures pressure of other gases
o Standard atmospheric pressure = 1atm = pressure that supports a column of mercury
exactly 760mm high at 0 at sea level
1torr = 1mmHg
1atm = 760mmHg = 760torr = 101.325kPa
Mercury is used to its high density, leading to ease of measurement
Gas Laws
o Boyle’s Law: pressure up, volume down - inverse relationship at constant temp -
inversely proportional
o Charles’ Law: volume up, absolute temperature up - direct relationship between
temperature & volume at constant pressure - directly proportional
o Gay Lussac: pressure & temperature are directly proportional
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