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Chapter 8

CHM 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Ionic Radius, Electron Affinity, Valence Electron

Course Code
CHM 111

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Mendeleev: created periodic table by organizing elements by properties
Rutherford: atomic number discoveries used to organize elements
Moseley’s Law: frequency of X-rays emitted by atoms
o =a(Z-b)
Representative Elements: (1A-7A), incomplete s or p subshells of highest n
Noble Gases: group 8A, complete p subshells (except He)
Transition metals: incomplete d subshells/readily form cations with incomplete d subshells
Lanthanides and Actinides: incomplete f blocks
Valence electrons determine reactivity (outermost electrons)
Nonvalence electrons = core electrons
Isoelectronic: same number of e- (eg. cation and noble gas)
Transition metal cations: electron-electron & electron-nucleus interactions differ b/w neutral
atom and ion
o Electrons are removed from ns orbital before (n-1)d orbitals
1. Effective Nuclear Charge: Zeff = Z - σ
nuclear charge felt by an electron when actual charge (Z) and repulsive shielding
effects are taken into account (σ = shielding constant)
Z > σ > 0
Increases down group and right across period
2) Atomic radius:
3) Ionic radius:
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