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Chapter 12

PSYC 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Longitudinal Study, John Gottman, Sigmund Freud

2 pages103 viewsFall 2016

Course Code
PSYC 101
Dr.Eurnestine Brown

of 2
Module 12: Adulthood
Physical Development
Decline of muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output
begins in our mid-twenties
Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood
During early and middle adulthood, decline has more to do with health and
exercise habits
Gradual decline in fertility
Menopause - the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to
the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce
Sexual activity declines
Physical Changes in Later Life
Strength and Stamina
Muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina diminish in late adulthood
Sensory Abilities
Visual sharpness, distance perception, and adaptation to light level
changes are less acute
A 65 yo retina receives only a third of the light a 20 yo retina would
Senses of smell and hearing diminish
○ Health
The body’s disease fighting immune system weakens, making older
adults more susceptible to life threatening ailments
People over 65 suffer fewer short term ailments
The Aging Brain
Take more time to react, solve perceptual puzzles, and remember names
By age 80, brain weight decreases by 5% or so
Atrophy of the inhibition-controlling frontal lobes account for occasional
blunt questions or comments
Exercise help with enhanced memory, sharpened judgement, and
reduced risk of significant cognitive decline
Also helps maintain telomeres which protect the ends of
Cognitive Development
Older people’s capacity to learn and remember skills declines less than their verbal
studying intelligence
cross- sectional studies - a study in which people of different ages are
compared with one another
Longitudinal study - research in which the same people are restudied and
retested over a long period
Proximity to death is more of a predictor of mental abilities than age
Terminal decline - accelerated decline of cognitive abilities before death
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Social Development
Adulthood Ages and Stages
Midlife transition - time of great struggle, regret, or even feeling struck down by
Social clock - the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage,
parenthood, and retirement
Chance events change lives
Adulthood Commitments
Erik Erikson says intimacy and generativity dominate adulthood
Sigmund Freud said the healthy adult is one who can love and work
■ Love
Marriage is a predictor of happiness, sexual satisfaction, income,
and physical and mental health
John Gottman says one indicator of marital success is having a
five to one positive and negative interactions
Empty nesting is often brings couple closer together
■ Work
Happiness results from having work that fits your interests and
provides you with a sense of competence and accomplishment
and having a partner who cheers your accomplishments
Well-Being Across the Lifespan
From teens to mid life people usually experience a strengthening of identity,
confidence, and self-esteem
Most over 65 yo are not notably unhappy
More focus on positive feelings, enhanced emotional control, fewer
problems in social relationships
The amygdala, a neural processing center for emotions, responds less actively to
negative events
Death and Dying
Grieving is more intense when death is sudden
Erik Erikson says a sense of integrity at death - feeling that one’s life has been
meaningful and worthwhile - was important to the mourning process
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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