Biological psychology- the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes. Neuroscience- the scientific study of the nervous system. Neurons- cells that are highly specialized to receive and transmit information from one part of the body to another. Sensory neurons- convey information about the environment. Motor neurons- communicate information to the muscles and glands of the body. Cell body- contains structures that manufacture proteins and process nutrients. Dendrites- short, branching fibers that extend from the cell bodies of most neurons. Axon- a single, elongated tube that extends from the cell body in most, though not all, neurons. Glial cells/glia- provide structural support for neurons throughout the nervous systematic. Myelin sheath- a white fatty covering that is wrapped around the axon of some, but not all, neurons. Stimulus threshold- the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a neuron.