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Chapter 1-4

COM 1040 Chapter 1-4: Chapters 1-4
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4 Pages
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Spring 2017

Department
Communication
Course Code
COM 1040
Professor
Martha L.Antolik
Chapter
1-4

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COM 1040 P a t c h e t t | 1
KEY-TERM DEFINITIONS
Chapter 1
Symbols Arbitrary representations of ideas, objects, people, relationships, cultures, genders,
races, and so forth
Sign A consequence or an indicator of something specific, which cannot be changed by
arbitrary actions or labels (e.g. wet streets are a sign of rain)
Meaning What a symbol represents
Social Construction The way in which symbols take on meaning in a social context or society
as they are used over time
Medium Means through which a message is conveyed
Frames Basic forms of knowledge that provide a definition of a scenario, either because both
people agree on the nature of the situation or because the cultural assumptions built into the
interaction and the previous relational context of talk give them a clue
Communication Frame A boundary around a conversation that pulls ones attention toward
certain things and away from others
Representation Describes facts or conveys information (contrast with presentation)
Presentation One persons particular version of, or take on the facts or events (contrast with
representation)
Communication as Action The act of sensing messages whether or not they are received
Communication as Interaction An exchange of information between two (or more) individuals
Communication as Transaction The construction of shared meanings or understandings
between two (or more) individuals
Constitutive Approach to Communication Communication can create or bring into existence
something that has not been there before, such as an agreement, a contract, or an identity
Chapter 2
Historiography the study of the persuasive effect of writing history in particular ways and the
reasons why particular reports and analyses are offered by specific authors
Social Scientific Approach Views the world as objective, casual, and predictable; researchers
using this approach primarily seek to describe communication activity and to discover
connections between phenomena or casual patterns
Interpretivist Approach Views communication as creative, uncertain, and unpredictable, and
thus rejects the idea that a single reality exists or can be discovered; researchers using this
approach primarily seek to understand and describe communication experience

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find more resources at oneclass.com COM 1040 P a t c h e t t | 1 KEY-TERM DEFINITIONS Chapter 1 Symbols – Arbitrary representations of ideas, objects, people, relationships, cultures, genders, races, and so forth Sign – A consequence or an indicator of something specific, which cannot be changed by arbitrary actions or labels (e.g. wet streets are a sign of rain) Meaning – What a symbol represents Social Construction – The way in which symbols take on meaning in a social context or society as they are used over time Medium – Means through which a message is conveyed Frames – Basic forms of knowledge that provide a definition of a scenario, either because both people agree on the nature of the situation or because the cultural assumptions built into the interaction and the previous relational context of talk give them a clue Communication Frame – A boundary around a conversation that pulls one’s attention toward certain things and away from others Representation – Describes facts or conveys information (contrast with presentation) Presentation – One person’s particular version of, or take on the facts or events (contrast with representation) Communication as Action – The act of sensing messages – whether or not they are received Communication as Interaction – An exchange of information between two (or more) individuals Communication as Transaction – The construction of shared meanings or understandings between two (or more) individuals Constitutive Approach to Communication – Communication can create or bring into existence something that has not been there before, such as an agreement, a contract, or an identity Chapter 2 Historiography – the study of the persuasive effect of writing history in particular ways and the reasons why particular reports and analyses are offered by specific authors Social Scientific Approach – Views the world as objective, casual, and predictable; researchers using this approach primarily seek to describe communication activity and to discover connections between phenomena or casual patterns Interpretivist Approach – Views communication as creative, uncertain, and unpredictable, and thus rejects the idea that a single reality exists or can be discovered; researchers using this approach primarily seek to understand and describe communication experience find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com COM 1040 P a t c h e t t | 2 Critical Approach (crucial?) – Seeks to identify the hidden but formidable symbolic structures and practices that create or uphold disadvantage, inequity, or oppression of some groups in favor of others. Chapter 3 Identity – A person’s uniqueness, represented by descriptions, a self-concept, inner thoughts, and performances, that is symbolized in interactions with other people and presented for their assessment and moral evaluation Perception – Process of actively selecting, organizing, and evaluating information, activities, situations, people, and essentially all the things that make up your world Selective Exposure – The idea that you are more likely to expose yourself to that which supports your values and attitudes, that you will be more likely to pick up on activities that support your views of the world, and that you will pay less attention to those that do not. Schemata – Mental structures that are used to organize information in part by clustering or linking associated material Personal Constructs – Bipolar dimensions used to measure and evaluate things Symbolic Self – The self that is transacted in interaction with other people; that arises out of social interaction, not vice versa; and hence that does not just “belong to you” Symbolic Interactionism – How broad social forces affect or even transact an individual person’s view of who they are Attitude of Reflection (Symbolic Interactionism) – Thinking about how you look in other people’s eyes, or reflecting on the fact that other people can see you as a social object from their point of view Self-Description – Description that involves information about self that is obvious to others through appearance and behavior Self-Disclosure – The revelation of personal information that others could not know unless the person made it known Dialectic Tension – Occurs whenever one is in two minds about something because one feels a simultaneous pull in two directions Altercasting – How language can impose a certain identity on people, and how language can support or reject the identity of another person Performative Self – A self that is a creative performance based on the social demands and norms of a given situation Front Region – A frame where a social interaction is regarded as under public scrutiny, so people have to be on their best behavior or acting out their professional roles or intended “face” (contrast with back region) find more resources at
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