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Chapter 3

PSYC 365 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Moral Development, Relational Aggression, Deindividuation

Course Code
PSYC 365

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Chapter 3: Gender Stereotypes and Gender Differences
Homework Notes
-Gender role stereotypes: a set of shared cultural beliefs about males’ and females’ behavior,
personality traits, and other attributes
-Two motives for why we stereotype:
-Comprehension goal filling in a lot of assumed information when meeting a new
-Self-enhancement purposes stereotypes tend to be negative; make ourselves feel
better by denigrating another group
-Implicit stereotypes = learned, automatic associations between social categories and other
-IAT (implicit association test)
-Gender differences can be biologically or environmentally caused
-Stereotype threat = being at risk of personally confirming a negative stereotype about one’s
-Claude Steele measured verbal intelligence in black and white students
-Stereotypes (positive and negative) hurt performance
-Power and stereotypes influence each other:
-Stereotyping exerts control/power over people, thus justifying/maintaining status quo
-Powerful people stereotype less powerful people
-Stereotypes are prescriptivethey tell how people of a certain group should behave
-Powerful people pay less attention to the less powerful for 3 reasons:
1) Less powerful do not control outcomes of the powerful often
2) Powerful people tend to be overloaded with information; less attentive to the
less powerful
3) Powerful people who have high need for dominance may not want to pay
attention to the less powerful
-Gender differences vs. individual differences despite average gender differences in a trait,
there are always large individual differences (MM, FF)
-Meta-analysis = statistical technique that allows a researcher to combine the results of many
research studies
-Three steps of conducting a meta-analysis:
1) Locate all previous studies on the topic being investigated
2) Compute statistic that measures how big the difference between males and females is
and what the direction of the difference was
d = (MM MF) / s
3) Average all values of d over all the studies located; average d value tells what direction
the gender difference is and how large the difference is
-Replication = repeating a studying independently by other scientists and the same results are
-Aggression = behavior intended to harm another person
-Gender differences = yes
-Individual differences = yes
-Environmental factors that produce gender difference:
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