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Chapter 7

PSYC 365 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Sexual Objectification, Sexual Attraction, Discrimination Learning

Course Code
PSYC 365

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Chapter 7: Infancy to Old Age- Development Across the Lifespan
-Two main motives in investigations of infant gender differences:
1) Gender differences due to biological factors no time for gender-role socialization
2) Important to study the way parents treat infants to check for differences in treatment
-No gender differences, but there are gender similarities for most behaviors
-Boys and girls are equally sociable
-Some early gender differences:
-Activity level boys have higher activity, but the difference is small in infants,
medium in preschoolers, and large in older children
-Temperament (the part of your personality you’re born with)
-Girls = better at inhibitory control, medium-sized difference
-Girls = more perceptual sensitivity, medium-sized difference
-Adults’ treatment of infants (in U.S. and Western nations)
-Mothers estimate how steep a slope their infant could successfully crawl down
(Mondschein et al., 2000)
-Parents have different expectations for sons and daughters
-Parents influence infants and infants influence parents
-Baby X Study (Seavey et al., 1975) studied interactions between adults and infants
(1/3 told baby was a boy, 1/3 told baby was a girl, 1/3 not told any gender)
-Most people thought baby was a boy due to strength of grasp or lack of hair
-We “make up” a gender when we don’t know for sure
-Gender learning
-Infants can distinguish female and male voices by 6 months
-9-11 months, infants can distinguish male and female faces
-Researchers use habituation paradigm
-Gender learning
-Acquired gender identity by age 2
-Can label other kids as boys/girls by age 3
-Identify angry characters as male
-Associate certain occupations with men/women by kindergarten-age
-Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory once children have a concept of gender
identity, they self-socialize gender self-socialization model (children’s identity, their
gender stereotypes, and their gender self-perceptions all influence each other as children
-Stereotype emulation links these three processes the more children identify
with their gender, the more they view themselves as having the qualities specified
by stereotypes about their gender
-Identity construction the more children engage in gender-stereotyped
activities, the more identified with their own gender they become
-Gender discrimination learning
-Gender differences
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-Toy/game preference children ages 2-3 have strong preference for gender-typed toys
and same-gender playmates
-Girls prefer dolls, arts/crafts, and fashion
-Boys prefer guns and transportation toys
-Aggressive behavior found around age 2
-Boys more aggressive than girls
-Socialization = the process by which society conveys to the individual its expectations for
his/her behavior, values, and beliefs
-Parents influence their children’s development in four ways:
1) Channeling parents create gendered world for their child through toys they
purchase and activities they choose, the way they decorate their bedroom, etc.
2) Differential treatment parents behave differently toward sons compared
with daughters
3) Direct instruction parents tell children how they should behave
4) Modeling parents demonstrate gendered behavior for their children
-Mothers use more supportive speech with daughters than with sons creates greater
emphasis for daughters on verbal interactions/relationships
-Parents play differently with sons compared with daughters
-Engage in more pretend play with girls
-Fathers engage in more physical play with sons than with daughters
-Schools contribute to gender-role stereotypes
-Teachers praise girls for decorous conduct and boys for good academic
-When making mistakes, boys given more precise feedback/encouraged to keep
trying; girls told not to worry about the mistake and teachers spend less time with
them suggesting new approaches
-(Hilliard & Liben, 2010) measured gender salience in the classroom vs. none
-High gender salience significantly increased gender stereotypes, less
positive ratings of other-gender peers, and decreased play with other-
gender peers
-Almost all toys = gender specific
-Mixed gender groups shown in only 19% of commercials
-Video games = extreme gender stereotyping violence against women
-(Pike & Jennings, 2005) after children viewed certain TV commercials, asked
to sort toys into section for boys, girls, and both
-Traditionally-raised children = more likely to have gender stereotypes for
toys; nontraditional condition = more likely to say toys were for boys and
-Amount of TV-viewing = correlated with acceptance of gender stereotypes
-The Gender Segregation Effect
-By age 3, children have a tendency to seek out/play with other children of their
own gender and avoid playing with children of the other gender
-Tendency grows stronger as children age
-Boys’ play = rougher, involves more risk, confrontation, and strives for
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