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HIST 3209 (11)
B.S.Elliot (11)
Lecture 4

Canadian Urban History Week 4 Lecture 2.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 3209

Canadian Urban History Week 4 Lecture 2 th Jan 5 2014 Planning II: Town vs Town – Visions for a City Number of solutions to remedy the solutions of the suburbs • High rise apartment building as a solution to the rsiign cost of suburbs – weren’t really popular though • The rural park and country estate as the root of the modern suburb faded and gave way to other solutions from the past • One includes how we handled greenspace o Typical plan had school and community space at the center o As schools tended t be concentrated in fewer locations • Ottawa laid out a number of wide walkways between neighbourhoods – better use of greenspace than leaving it around • Other movement that naturalized parks more – widely criticized and never fully implemented – some people thought it was an excuse for saving the tending of the parks • Others thought they would become more dangerous for kids • State lots had also become popular during the 1970s and still proliferate • The idea when Nepean started exploring them (i.e. Cedar Hill) – they were hoping to reduce the cost of housing o Then just became a new elite enclave gobbling land • A flight to the countryside started happening in the 1960s – in with the hippies, etc • More people start to move into the countryside for a more quiet living th • To create an illusion of 19 community as another solution by tartign up an area – areas were being promoted as 19 century communities (Morgan Grant neighbourhood for example in Kanata) o Sometimes they made Victorian style houses o Barry Hoben?? As the architect o Even a subdivision at stittsville comprised of log homes • Suburban town centres were another idea that became popular before the amalgamations in 2001 • Nepean and Kanata had the idea of building a suburban town centre to emphasize thtat they were their own municipalities o Nepean came to this late • Chapman Mills – by Minto also totally aesthetic in 1998 (named by prof. ) Ben Franklin Place- Centrepoint • Nepean centre hall • Very successful as a cultural and administrative centre for Nepean • But was plunked down in an area designed with relentless suburban neighbourhood • They tried to make the main collector road to look more urban Centrum Blvd – Former Towship of Cumberland • Built another one of these • Cumberland town cent Twon Centre – Reston, Virginia • Looks like a downtown core with these four large buildings • Artificial town centre surrounded by land New Urbanism: Seaside, Florida • Recreating the small town looked to the past • 1980s and 90s – planners drawing upon small town Noth America as the new model for the suburbs • The prototype community is Seaside, Florida • Andres Duany and Elizabeth Playter-Zyberk • Interesting because it was an attempt to build a new town and have a mix of social classes, mix of type sof housing • They wanted to echo the past but do it in a creative way – said you could use materials that existed in 1940 • The proportion of the building and the lots were determined by the architectural code • Distincitve sense of place rooted in the architecture within it • Vaguely modern and vaguely traditional • The planning model was important too – tried to create the community that existed in a small town • Also narrowed the setback between the house and the street- streets were also narrowed • Grid plan brought back • Sand or natural vegeatation – no lawns • Also wanted to force people inot the parks and public areas so they can interact with their neighbours • People would buy this as a vacation lot – the owners of the property brought in DPZ as their planner Nepean – New Urbanism • Nepean also brought Elizabeth Zyberk up to give a talk to them about what they were doing • Agreement that this plan wasn’t going to practical • Then the plan was given to one of DPZ’s admirers • Public dubious • 5 years later, this plan was abandoned and the big box stores started being built • New Urbanism continues to be used to create elite enclaves Poundbury • Has rather slavish reproductions of verncacular architecture from the west of England • Less originality here than Seaside – just using historicist styles of architecture • Nobody is here during the daytime and there are parking lots hidden behind houses – still automobile dependent • These new more dense communities will either become one of two things: o Elite enclaves o Slums of the future • The idea of the allowability of greater density in the suburbs took off – became ‘smart growth’ • This just becomes an excuse to remove the attractive elemetns from the New Urbanism model and intensity the density John Taylor on Ottawa: the unexpurgated version • Most people think of the grandiouse developed for the government or National Capital commission when thinking of city planning • Dave Gordon – has a book coming out on planning the capital; a series of articles were done; many of these weren’t realized because the grandiouse schemes are too expensive and involve tearing downt he city • John Taylor has few uses for the grandiouse plans • The things people like about Ottawa is more about the National Capital Commission (i.e. skating rink of Rideau Canal) o Came out with stupid ideas but also had some good ones • Sparks street did transform to a kind of broadway – the first venture of government outside the precinct in the south side of wellington • Official buildings remained in the department of Public Works – they continued the use of Gothic styles as echoeing the Britihs connections • Failure of Crown’s grand planning efforts till 1950 • Parliament precinct confined by Ottawa River &v ernacular Ottawa o Failure to achieve “Capital T’ form – processional avenue to govt complex o At various times, the NCC and their predecessor attempted to do this, 1990s they attempted to expropriate Metcalfe and have it lead to parliament o Would have been expensive – tried to create that capital ‘T’ form that was popular in so many cities o Ottawa has a lopsided ‘T’ o PM King decided that he was going to strengthen their control over the core o Washington of the North idea by PM Laurier in 1893 – OIC – predeccor of NCC • 1893 – ideas of capital as focusing on industry • Completeness of federal victory – the local councils goals was beautification • The locals didn’t always roll over when the NCC rang a bell – this vision of the capital (the industriail one) attempted to exert a local influence on what ht ecity should be o Associated with Mayor Ellis o Mayor Ellis said that Ottawa needed industry during the turn of the century o Ellis took Hamilton as his model – said there was less industry in Ottawa because of lack of incentives • Hamilton in 1891 had a scatter of industries downtown – provided cheap industrial sites with tax relief to anyone who wanted to build a factory • 1914 – 23 branch plants • Ellis implemented a number of policies to do this o 1907 – purchased an electric company and re-orgnaized it as Ottawa Hydro o This took the electric monopoly away from Soper – gave Ottawa a source of power to offer industries o He also applied to the province to annex land from the townships – wanted to double the size of Ottawa o The provincial government wasn’t willing to let that happen naturally but led the residents of the suburban neigjbourhoods to vote on it o This meant making costly deals (i.e. roads at public expense) o Ellis also wanted to concentrate the rail lines on the eastern side of the Canal and turn them into one – this was picked up by the federal government in 1912 (Union Station then built) o The relocation of the centralizing of the rail facilities was accomplished o The plan to annex all the land into Ottawa didn’t work – the annexed land wasn’t cheap enough to be appealing to industry o The Ottawa public was also reluctant to spend money on this type of thing o Ellis appointed a publicity officer to promote Ottawa as a great industrial center o The local residents weren’t keen on spending money to support this industrial vision o Ellis then proposed to expropriate land west of mechanics ville? and turn it into Canada’s first industrial parks – was also rejected o They also voted to discontinue the publicity bureau o 1911 – Typhoid epidemic from sewage arising from pipes – 200 people died; city had to address health issues o Ellis scheme – annexed townships without them becoming the industrial powerhouses
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